Construction of mono- and bivalent human single-chain Fv fragments against the D antigen in the Rh blood group: multimerization effect on cell agglutination and application to blood typing.Protein Eng. 1998 Mar; 11(3):233-41.PE
An expression system for mono- and bivalent single-chain Fv fragments (scFv) of a human antibody against D antigen in the Rh blood group system was established in Escherichia coli. The cDNA encoding the Fv fragment of the anti-D monoclonal antibody D10 was cloned using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in E.coli by fusing with a peptide tag link in the C-terminus of the light chain variable region. The scFv fragment expressed by the bacteria produced specific agglutination of human D positive red cells in the presence of an anti-peptide tag antibody. Flow cytometric analysis clearly indicated that the bacterially prepared scFv showed high specificity and affinity for D antigen, which was identical with that of the parental IgG. In order to construct bivalent D10 scFv for use in direct cell agglutination, the scFv was fused with a dimeric protein, bacterial alkaline phosphatase (BAP). The fusion protein produced significant agglutination of human red blood cells with D antigen, confirming that the bacterially expressed fusion protein is a functional bivalent antibody fragment. Specific agglutination of D positive red cells by D10 scFv-BAP was enhanced in the presence of anti-BAP antibody, suggesting that further multimerization of scFv led to highly efficient cell agglutination. By grafting BAP enzymatic activity into the scFv fragment (enzyme-linked scFv), blood typing could conveniently be performed. These results indicate that bacterially expressed scFv and scFv-BAP would be of practical use in blood typing. The system reported here could also be applied to the examination of other cell surface antigens and cell agglutination.