Efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for visceral leishmaniasis in endemic developing countries.Bull World Health Organ. 1998; 76(1):25-32.BW
Reported are the results of a study to determine the efficacy and safety of liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) for treating visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) in several developing countries where the disease is endemic (Brazil, India, and Kenya). At each study site, sequential cohorts of 10 patients each were treated with AmBisome at a dose of 2 mg.kg-1.day-1 (2 MKD). The first cohort received regimen 1:2 MKD on days 1-6 and day 10 (total dose: 14 mg/kg). If the efficacy with this regimen was satisfactory, a second cohort received regimen 2:2 MKD on days 1-4 and 10 (total dose: 10 mg/kg); and a third cohort received regimen 3:2 MKD on days 1, 5, and 10 (total dose: 6 mg/kg). In India, regimens 1, 2, and 3 (which were studied concurrently) each cured 100% of 10 patients. In Kenya, regimen 1 cured all 10 patients, regimen 2 cured 90% of 10 patients, but regimen 3 cured only 20% of 5 patients. In Brazil, regimen 1 was only partially curative: 5 of 13 patients (62%). Therefore, 15 patients were administered regimen 4 (2 MKD for 10 consecutive days; total dose, 20 mg/kg) and 13 patients were cured (83%). These results suggest that for the treatment of kala-azar the following doses of AmBisome should be administered: in India and Kenya, 2 mg/kg on days 1-4 and day 10; and in Brazil, 2 mg/kg on days 1-10.