[Malaria prophylaxis; advice for the individual traveller. The Working Group for Malaria Prophylaxis].Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1998 Apr 18; 142(16):912-4.NT
Recently, the Dutch Working Group on Malaria Prophylaxis produced new national guidelines. The new approach takes the risk of malaria and of serious morbidity or mortality for the individual traveller as its point of departure. In large areas in the tropics, there is no malaria risk. In some areas with limited risk, proguanil is still an effective chemoprophylactic (mainly in Central America, the Near East, Central Asia and parts of Indonesia). However, multiple-drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum necessitates the use of mefloquine, despite disturbing side effects in some people, in Sub-Saharan Africa, major parts of South East Asia and the Amazone basin of South America. If mefloquine is contraindicated, alternatives advised are the combination of proguanil and chloroquine or (in South East Asia) doxycycline. For visits to transmission areas lasting 7 days or less, alternative prophylactic measures may be acceptable, but only if the traveller after the visit has easy access to adequate medical facilities. When exposure lasts not more than two nights, use of a mosquito net, repellents and protective clothing without chemoprophylaxis is acceptable, provided the traveller is well informed. To take along pocket treatment is only advised for some journeys lasting more than one month to areas with multiple-drug resistant falciparum malaria. When mefloquine prophylaxis is used, such stand-by treatment is only advocated for a few countries in South East Asia; when mefloquine cannot be given, also for other areas. The type of pocket treatment recommended depends on the chemoprophylaxis used and on whether contraindications exist. Drugs that can be used are: halofantrine (if no contraindications exist and an ECG shows no prolongation of the QT interval) or quinine, either alone (in pregnancy) or combined with doxycycline or clindamycine (the latter for children < 8 years). With the new individual approach advice may differ for different persons visiting similar tropical areas. It is the physician's task to explain the risks of a particular journey and the measures advised.