Mandibular changes in persons with untreated and treated Class II division 1 malocclusion.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998 Jun; 113(6):661-73.AJ
The growth potential of individuals with Class II malocclusions is of interest to the practicing orthodontist because such malocclusions constitute a significant percentage of cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate on cross-sectional and longitudinal bases the changes in mandibular length and relationship and maxillary-mandibular relationships in untreated Class II subjects from deciduous to permanent dentition and also to evaluate the effects of orthodontic treatment, with and without the extraction of first premolars, on these relationships. Class II samples were compared with matched normal, untreated individuals. The Class II division 1 (Class II/1) untreated sample comprised 30 subjects, 15 males and 15 females. Each subject had a complete set of data at three stages of dental development-namely, Stage I, after the completion of eruption of the deciduous dentition; Stage II, at the time when the permanent first molars and most of the incisors have erupted (i.e., in mixed dentition); and Stage III, at the completion of eruption of the permanent dentition, excluding third molars. The Class II treated sample comprised 44 subjects (21 males, 23 females) treated with four first-premolar extractions and 47 subjects (20 males, 27 females) treated without extraction. Treatment was accomplished with the use of an edgewise appliance, appropriate extraoral traction, and Class II elastics. The extraction decision was based mainly on the presence of crowding and profile consideration. Records on 35 normal subjects (20 males, 15 females) were available from the Iowa Longitudinal Facial Growth Study. Cephalograms for the normal individuals were matched to the corresponding ages of the Class II cases. With regard to these findings, few consistent differences were noted between the untreated Class II/1 and normal subjects on cross-sectional comparisons. The differences in mandibular length and position were more evident in the early stages of development than at later stages. Longitudinal comparisons of growth profiles indicated that the growth trends were essentially similar between the untreated Class II/1 and normal subjects in the various parameters compared. The comparisons of growth magnitude indicated the presence of greater skeletal facial convexity in the untreated Class II/1 subjects, accompanied by a tendency for a more retruded mandible. Initial comparisons between the Class II/1 treated groups and normal subjects indicated that the Class II/1 malocclusions were associated with a larger overjet, deeper overbite, and greater ANB angle. After a 5-year treatment and observation period, an overall "normalization" in the mandibular and maxillary-mandibular skeletal relationships was noted in the treated Class II/1 subjects in both the extraction and the nonextraction groups compared with normal subjects. The changes were more pronounced in the extraction group.