Dental abnormalities and ectopic eruption in patients with isolated cleft palate.Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 1998 Jun; 32(2):203-12.SJ
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cleft size and surgical treatment on the development of permanent teeth in patients with isolated cleft palate. The series comprised 109 children with isolated cleft palate, 70 girls and 39 boys, including 14 patients with Robin sequence. The patients were grouped according to the sagittal extent of the palatal cleft, measured on dental casts obtained before the primary palate surgery. Forty-six children were treated by one-stage palatoplasty, and 63 in two stages. The dentition was studied on orthopantomograms taken at 5, 8, 11, and 14 years of age. Congenitally missing permanent teeth (third molars excluded) were found in 33 subjects (30%). Children with large clefts had significantly more missing teeth than children with small clefts. The tooth most usually missing was the mandibular second premolar, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, and the upper second premolar. The incidence of dental malformation was 23%, mostly mild forms. Ectopic eruption of the upper first permanent molars was seen in 23 (45%) of the subjects with large clefts, and in 18 (31%) of those with small clefts. The surgical method did not significantly affect the direction of the eruption. There is a correlation between cleft size and hypodontia, dental deformity, and ectopic eruption. Children with Robin sequence had almost the same incidence of hypodontia, malformed teeth, and ectopic eruption as children with large clefts. There was no correlation between surgical method and ectopic eruption of the maxillary first permanent molars.