Comparison of three fatty meals in healthy normolipidaemic men: high post-prandial retinyl ester response to soybean oil.Eur J Clin Invest 1998; 28(5):407-15EJ
Oral fat tolerance tests (FTTs) have been widely used as a tool to investigate post-prandial lipaemia. However, there is no consensus regarding the type and amount of fat used in the tests.
We compared three commonly used FTTs, each containing 63 g of fat: a mixed meal, a liquid cream meal and a liquid soybean oil meal. The study group consisted of 10 healthy normolipidaemic men. We measured triglycerides (TGs), retinyl esters (REs), apolipoprotein E (apoE), apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48) and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) in plasma and in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions separated by density-gradient ultracentrifugation at baseline and 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after the FTTs.
We observed similar TGs, apoE, apoB-48 and apoB-100 responses after all three FTTs, despite the different fatty acid composition of the meals. In contrast, the commonly used marker for exogenous particles, RE, differed clearly when polyunsaturated (soybean oil) and saturated fat (cream or mixed meal) were used. The RE response in plasma (P < 0.005, repeated measures ANOVA), in chylomicrons (P < 0.013) and in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) 1 (P < 0.017), as well as the RE area under the incremental curve in plasma and chylomicron fractions, were markedly increased after the soybean oil meal compared with the mixed meal and cream meal tests. The peak of RE response occurred parallel to the responses of other markers (i.e. TG or apoB-48) of post-prandial TRL during soybean oil meal. In contrast, RE peak concentration was delayed after saturated fat-containing meals. After soybean oil, FTT plasma cholesterol concentration was lower and the chylomicron cholesterol concentration was higher compared with mixed or cream meals, but no differences were detected in post-prandial high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration.
When the amount of fat is similar, post-prandial responses of TG, apoE, apoB-48, apoB-100 and HDL-cholesterol were comparable after different FTTs.