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Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study.
Lancet. 1998 Jun 20; 351(9119):1840-3.Lct

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Previous studies suggested a protective effect of smoking on Alzheimer's disease, but most were case-control studies based on prevalent cases. The findings of prospective studies on the association between smoking and the risk of dementia are inconclusive.

METHODS

We did a population-based follow-up study of elderly people who were initially free of dementia. 6870 people aged 55 years and older agreed to take part. Smoking history was taken at baseline and participants were classified as never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. During follow-up, we recorded all incident cases of dementia. We used never smokers as the reference category to calculate relative risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease by Cox proportional hazards regression, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and alcohol intake. We also examined modification of risk by age, sex, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype.

FINDINGS

During mean follow-up of 2.1 (range 1.5-3.4) years, 146 incident cases of dementia were detected, of which 105 were Alzheimer's disease. Compared with never smokers, smokers had an increased risk of dementia (relative risk 2.2 [95% CI 1.3-3.6]) and Alzheimer's disease (2.3 [1.3-4.1]). Smoking was a strong risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in individuals without the APOEepsilon4 allele (4.6 [1.5-14.2]), but had no effect in participants with this allele (0.6 [0.1-4.8]).

INTERPRETATION

Smoking was associated with a doubling of the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Our finding that carriers of the APOEepsilon4 had no increased risk of dementia suggests an interaction between smoking and the APOEepsilon4 genotype in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus University Medical School, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9652667

Citation

Ott, A, et al. "Smoking and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in a Population-based Cohort Study: the Rotterdam Study." Lancet (London, England), vol. 351, no. 9119, 1998, pp. 1840-3.
Ott A, Slooter AJ, Hofman A, et al. Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet. 1998;351(9119):1840-3.
Ott, A., Slooter, A. J., Hofman, A., van Harskamp, F., Witteman, J. C., Van Broeckhoven, C., van Duijn, C. M., & Breteler, M. M. (1998). Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet (London, England), 351(9119), 1840-3.
Ott A, et al. Smoking and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in a Population-based Cohort Study: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet. 1998 Jun 20;351(9119):1840-3. PubMed PMID: 9652667.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study. AU - Ott,A, AU - Slooter,A J, AU - Hofman,A, AU - van Harskamp,F, AU - Witteman,J C, AU - Van Broeckhoven,C, AU - van Duijn,C M, AU - Breteler,M M, PY - 1998/7/4/pubmed PY - 1998/7/4/medline PY - 1998/7/4/entrez SP - 1840 EP - 3 JF - Lancet (London, England) JO - Lancet VL - 351 IS - 9119 N2 - BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested a protective effect of smoking on Alzheimer's disease, but most were case-control studies based on prevalent cases. The findings of prospective studies on the association between smoking and the risk of dementia are inconclusive. METHODS: We did a population-based follow-up study of elderly people who were initially free of dementia. 6870 people aged 55 years and older agreed to take part. Smoking history was taken at baseline and participants were classified as never smokers, former smokers, and current smokers. During follow-up, we recorded all incident cases of dementia. We used never smokers as the reference category to calculate relative risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease by Cox proportional hazards regression, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and alcohol intake. We also examined modification of risk by age, sex, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. FINDINGS: During mean follow-up of 2.1 (range 1.5-3.4) years, 146 incident cases of dementia were detected, of which 105 were Alzheimer's disease. Compared with never smokers, smokers had an increased risk of dementia (relative risk 2.2 [95% CI 1.3-3.6]) and Alzheimer's disease (2.3 [1.3-4.1]). Smoking was a strong risk factor for Alzheimer's disease in individuals without the APOEepsilon4 allele (4.6 [1.5-14.2]), but had no effect in participants with this allele (0.6 [0.1-4.8]). INTERPRETATION: Smoking was associated with a doubling of the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Our finding that carriers of the APOEepsilon4 had no increased risk of dementia suggests an interaction between smoking and the APOEepsilon4 genotype in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. SN - 0140-6736 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9652667/Smoking_and_risk_of_dementia_and_Alzheimer's_disease_in_a_population_based_cohort_study:_the_Rotterdam_Study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0140673697075417 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -