Learning disabilities with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: parents' and teachers' perspectives.J Child Neurol. 1998 Jun; 13(6):270-6.JC
Our objective was to delineate the educational and behavioral differences between learning disabled children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A restrospective (TROHOC) multimeasure comparative design was employed. Parents' and teachers' questionnaires (ANSER system) pertaining to attention-activity, associated behaviors, and scholastic achievements were compared. Parents' questionnaires failed to distinguish between the two groups. Teachers' questionnaires were significantly more sensitive. Significant correlations between educational achievements and attention-activity and associated behaviors scores among children with learning disabilities were evident, no such correlations were found in the group with learning disability with ADHD. The factor analysis identified different educational and behavioral aggregates with language related difficulties and externalizing behaviors more typically aggregated in the learning disabled group with ADHD and recall deficit and internalizing/neurotic behaviors in the group with learning disability only. ADHD appears to be an associated comorbidity and not necessarily a specific learning deficit. However, children with learning disability with ADHD possibly have a different underlying neurocognitive pattern than their peers with learning disabilities only.