Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Nelfinavir. A review of its therapeutic efficacy in HIV infection.
Drugs. 1998 Jul; 56(1):147-67.D

Abstract

Nelfinavir is a selective inhibitor of HIV protease, the enzyme responsible for post-translational processing of HIV propeptides. In the presence of the drug, immature, noninfectious virus particles are produced. Nelfinavir in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and/or other protease inhibitors profoundly suppresses viral replication. Plasma HIV RNA levels (viral loan) rapidly fall below the limit of detection (LOD; usually 400 or 500 copies/ml in the majority of patients. When used in combination with NRTIs, nelfinavir 1250mg twice daily produced similar results to 3-times-daily nelfinavir at a range of total daily dosages. In an ongoing study > 70% of adults receiving a nelfinavir based combination regimen had plasma HIV RNA levels below the LOD (< 400 copies/ml) after 84 weeks. In addition, 73% of paediatric patients receiving nelfinavir plus at least 1 new NRTI had viral loads below the LOD (< 400 copies/ml) after 34 weeks. Furthermore, CD4+ cell counts generally increased in conjunction with reductions in viral load. Combination therapy with nelfinavir and saquinavir results in higher saquinavir plasma concentrations, make twice-daily administration of saquinavir feasible and may delay the emergence of resistant viral strains. A unique mutation at codon 30 (D30N) of the protease gene confers resistance to nelfinavir, but HIV with D30N mutation remains fully susceptible to indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in vitro. Nonetheless, in clinical use, significant cross-resistance is seen with all currently available protease inhibitors. Diarrhoea is the most frequently reported adverse event in patients receiving nelfinavir-based combination therapy and has been reported in up to 32% of nelfinavir recipients in randomised trials. Diarrhoea is generally of mild to moderate severity and does not result in weight loss. Rash, nausea, headache and asthenia were each reported in < or = 5% of patients. Approximately 5% of patients enrolled in an expanded access programme in the US discontinued nelfinavir because of adverse events. Nelfinavir is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system. Several clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions between nelfinavir and other drugs (i.e. ketoconazole, rifabutin, rifabutin, rifampicin), including other protease inhibitors (i.e. indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir) have been documented. As with other available protease inhibitors, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and abnormal fat distribution have been reported, albeit infrequently, in association with nelfinavir.

CONCLUSION

Nelfinavir-based combination regimens are well tolerated and produce profound and prolonged suppression of HIV replication in adult and paediatric patients. Hence, nelfinavir is suitable for inclusion in antiretroviral regimens for initial therapy for HIV infection and, alternatively, in regimens for patients unable to tolerate other protease inhibitors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Adis International Limited, Auckland, New Zealand. demail@adis.co.nzNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9664204

Citation

Jarvis, B, and D Faulds. "Nelfinavir. a Review of Its Therapeutic Efficacy in HIV Infection." Drugs, vol. 56, no. 1, 1998, pp. 147-67.
Jarvis B, Faulds D. Nelfinavir. A review of its therapeutic efficacy in HIV infection. Drugs. 1998;56(1):147-67.
Jarvis, B., & Faulds, D. (1998). Nelfinavir. A review of its therapeutic efficacy in HIV infection. Drugs, 56(1), 147-67.
Jarvis B, Faulds D. Nelfinavir. a Review of Its Therapeutic Efficacy in HIV Infection. Drugs. 1998;56(1):147-67. PubMed PMID: 9664204.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nelfinavir. A review of its therapeutic efficacy in HIV infection. AU - Jarvis,B, AU - Faulds,D, PY - 1998/7/17/pubmed PY - 1998/7/17/medline PY - 1998/7/17/entrez SP - 147 EP - 67 JF - Drugs JO - Drugs VL - 56 IS - 1 N2 - UNLABELLED: Nelfinavir is a selective inhibitor of HIV protease, the enzyme responsible for post-translational processing of HIV propeptides. In the presence of the drug, immature, noninfectious virus particles are produced. Nelfinavir in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and/or other protease inhibitors profoundly suppresses viral replication. Plasma HIV RNA levels (viral loan) rapidly fall below the limit of detection (LOD; usually 400 or 500 copies/ml in the majority of patients. When used in combination with NRTIs, nelfinavir 1250mg twice daily produced similar results to 3-times-daily nelfinavir at a range of total daily dosages. In an ongoing study > 70% of adults receiving a nelfinavir based combination regimen had plasma HIV RNA levels below the LOD (< 400 copies/ml) after 84 weeks. In addition, 73% of paediatric patients receiving nelfinavir plus at least 1 new NRTI had viral loads below the LOD (< 400 copies/ml) after 34 weeks. Furthermore, CD4+ cell counts generally increased in conjunction with reductions in viral load. Combination therapy with nelfinavir and saquinavir results in higher saquinavir plasma concentrations, make twice-daily administration of saquinavir feasible and may delay the emergence of resistant viral strains. A unique mutation at codon 30 (D30N) of the protease gene confers resistance to nelfinavir, but HIV with D30N mutation remains fully susceptible to indinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir in vitro. Nonetheless, in clinical use, significant cross-resistance is seen with all currently available protease inhibitors. Diarrhoea is the most frequently reported adverse event in patients receiving nelfinavir-based combination therapy and has been reported in up to 32% of nelfinavir recipients in randomised trials. Diarrhoea is generally of mild to moderate severity and does not result in weight loss. Rash, nausea, headache and asthenia were each reported in < or = 5% of patients. Approximately 5% of patients enrolled in an expanded access programme in the US discontinued nelfinavir because of adverse events. Nelfinavir is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system. Several clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions between nelfinavir and other drugs (i.e. ketoconazole, rifabutin, rifabutin, rifampicin), including other protease inhibitors (i.e. indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir) have been documented. As with other available protease inhibitors, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and abnormal fat distribution have been reported, albeit infrequently, in association with nelfinavir. CONCLUSION: Nelfinavir-based combination regimens are well tolerated and produce profound and prolonged suppression of HIV replication in adult and paediatric patients. Hence, nelfinavir is suitable for inclusion in antiretroviral regimens for initial therapy for HIV infection and, alternatively, in regimens for patients unable to tolerate other protease inhibitors. SN - 0012-6667 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9664204/Nelfinavir__A_review_of_its_therapeutic_efficacy_in_HIV_infection_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-199856010-00013 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -