Energy, macro- and micronutrient intake of 5-year-old urban black South African children in 1984 and 1995.Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1998; 12(3):297-312PP
Food habits change over time. This paper reports results of nutritional studies among 5-year-old urban black children in 1984 and 1995 in the Johannesburg/Soweto area. The objective was to compare energy, macro- and micronutrient intake of 5-year-old urban black South African children. Dietary intake was assessed by detailed dietary histories in 1984 and food frequency questionnaires in 1995, conducted by trained interviewers. The intake of energy, macro- and most micronutrients was higher in 1995 than in 1984, except for vitamin A, ascorbic acid, copper and iron. Fat intake increased from 52 g/day in 1984 to 95 g/day in 1995. Only biotin and vitamin D fell below 67% of the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for 4- to 6-year-olds, but mean intakes concealed the high percentage of children that had intakes below the RDA in 1984 and 1995. Urban black 5-year-old South African children consumed a low-fat (30% of total energy), high-carbohydrate (61% of total energy) diet in 1984, but a typical westernised diet by 1995 (fat 41% and carbohydrate 52% of total energy). With these changes, current reliable nutrition information is needed to assess the existing and future health needs of all South Africans.