Cardioprotective effects of the novel adenosine A1/A2 receptor agonist AMP 579 in a porcine model of myocardial infarction.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Aug; 286(2):611-8.JP
This study examined the cardioprotective effects and pharmacology of the novel adenosine A1/A2 receptor agonist ([1S-[1a,2b,3b, 4a(S*)]]-4-[7-[[2-(3-chloro-2-thienyl)-1-methylpropyl]amino]-3H-imida zo[4,5-b] pyridyl-3-yl] cyclopentane carboxamide) (AMP 579), in a model of myocardial infarction. Experiments were performed in pentobarbital-anesthetized pigs in which myocardial infarction was induced by a 40-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 3 hr of reperfusion. This procedure resulted in approximately 20% of the left ventricle being made ischemic in all test groups. In untreated animals, an infarct size equal to 56 +/- 5% of the ischemic area was observed. Preconditioning, with two cycles of 5 min of ischemia followed by 10-min reperfusion, resulted in a 70% reduction in infarct size (17 +/- 5%) relative to risk area. Administration of AMP 579 30 min before ischemia (3 microg/kg i.v. followed by 0.3 microg/kg/min i.v. through 1 hr of reperfusion) did not change blood pressure, HR or coronary blood flow but resulted in marked cardioprotection: a 98% reduction in infarct size (1 +/- 1%) relative to risk area. Moreover, whereas approximately 90% of control pigs suffered ventricular fibrillation during ischemia, no fibrillation was observed in animals treated with AMP 579. Further experiments determined the effects of AMP 579 when administered 30 min after the onset of myocardial ischemia, 10 min before reperfusion. Two doses were studied: a low hemodynamically silent dose (3 microg/kg + 0.3 microg/kg/min through 1 hr of reperfusion) and a 10-fold higher dose that did cause reductions in blood pressure and HR. Both doses of AMP 579 produced a comparable cardioprotective effect, reducing infarct size to approximately 50% of that observed in control animals. The cardioprotective effect of AMP 579 was a consequence of adenosine receptor stimulation, because it was completely inhibited by pretreatment with the specific adenosine receptor antagonist CGS 15943 (1 mg/kg i.v.). However, the selective A1 receptor agonist GR 79236 (3 microg/kg + 0.3 microg/kg/min i.v.) did not reduce infarct size, which suggests that under these experimental conditions, stimulation of adenosine A2 receptors is important for the cardioprotective effect of AMP 579. The adenosine-regulating agent acadesine (5 mg/kg + 0.5 mg/kg/min i.v.) also failed to reduce infarct size. In conclusion, the novel adenosine A1/A2 receptor agonist AMP 579 produces marked cardioprotection whether administered before myocardial ischemia or reperfusion. Cardioprotection is not dependent on changes in afterload or myocardial oxygen demand and is a consequence of adenosine receptor stimulation. The pharmacological profile of AMP 579 in this model is consistent with its potential utility in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction.