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Fruit and vegetable intake in young children.
J Am Coll Nutr 1998; 17(4):371-8JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Current recommendations call for most Americans, 2 years of age and over, to ent more fruits and vegetables.

OBJECTIVE

To determine, in a sample of healthy children, the extent to which young children's diets include the recommended numbers of fruit and vegetable servings per day.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING

A general primary care health center in upstate New York.

PARTICIPANTS

One-hundred-sixteen 2-year-old children and 107 5-year-old children, who were scheduled for a non-acute visit, and their parent/primary caretaker (PPC) were recruited between 1992 and 1993.

MEASUREMENTS

For 168 children (94 2-year-old children and 74 5-year-old children), mean dietary intakes were calculated from 7 days of written dietary records, entered and analyzed using the Minnesota Nutrition Data System. The numbers of fruit and vegetable servings/day were calculated according to USDA definitions of serving sizes.

RESULTS

The 2-year-old children consumed the same amounts of fruits, 100% fruit juice, and total fruits and vegetables as the 5-year-old children (0.8 and 0.7 fruit servings/day, 1.0 and 0.8 juice servings/day, and 2.2 and 2.1 total fruit and vegetable servings/day, respectively). Fruit juice accounted for 54% of all fruit servings consumed and 42% of all fruit and vegetable servings consumed. Total fruit consumption (fruits plus juice) was correlated with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.46), and inversely correlated with total fat and saturated fat intakes (R = -0.48 and R = -0.36, respectively, both p < 0.0001) and with cholesterol intake (R = -0.21, p < 0.01). Citrus fruit and juice consumption was strongly correlated with vitamin C intake (R = 0.56, p < 0.0001). Total vegetable consumption was strongly correlated with beta-carotene and vitamin A intakes (R = 0.63 and R = 0.32, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Total fruit and vegetable consumption correlated with intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber, and potassium (R = 0.55, R = 0.31, R = 0.56, R = 0.58, and R = 0.66, respectively, all p < 0.0001). Forty percent of 2-year-old children and 50% of 5-year-old children consumed < 2 servings/day of fruits and vegetables. Ninety-five percent of children consuming > or = 2 servings/day of fruits and vegetables met the RDA for vitamin C vs. 50% of those consuming < 2 servings/day (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, preschool-aged children consumed, on average, about 80% of the recommended fruit servings/day, but only 25% of the recommended vegetable servings/day. Low intakes of fruits and vegetables were associated with inadequate intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C, and dietary fiber, in addition to high intakes of total fat and saturated fat.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Mary Imogene Bassett Research Institute, Cooperstown, NY 13326-1394, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9710848

Citation

Dennison, B A., et al. "Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Young Children." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 4, 1998, pp. 371-8.
Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Baker SL. Fruit and vegetable intake in young children. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(4):371-8.
Dennison, B. A., Rockwell, H. L., & Baker, S. L. (1998). Fruit and vegetable intake in young children. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 17(4), pp. 371-8.
Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Baker SL. Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Young Children. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(4):371-8. PubMed PMID: 9710848.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fruit and vegetable intake in young children. AU - Dennison,B A, AU - Rockwell,H L, AU - Baker,S L, PY - 1998/8/26/pubmed PY - 1998/8/26/medline PY - 1998/8/26/entrez SP - 371 EP - 8 JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition JO - J Am Coll Nutr VL - 17 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Current recommendations call for most Americans, 2 years of age and over, to ent more fruits and vegetables. OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a sample of healthy children, the extent to which young children's diets include the recommended numbers of fruit and vegetable servings per day. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A general primary care health center in upstate New York. PARTICIPANTS: One-hundred-sixteen 2-year-old children and 107 5-year-old children, who were scheduled for a non-acute visit, and their parent/primary caretaker (PPC) were recruited between 1992 and 1993. MEASUREMENTS: For 168 children (94 2-year-old children and 74 5-year-old children), mean dietary intakes were calculated from 7 days of written dietary records, entered and analyzed using the Minnesota Nutrition Data System. The numbers of fruit and vegetable servings/day were calculated according to USDA definitions of serving sizes. RESULTS: The 2-year-old children consumed the same amounts of fruits, 100% fruit juice, and total fruits and vegetables as the 5-year-old children (0.8 and 0.7 fruit servings/day, 1.0 and 0.8 juice servings/day, and 2.2 and 2.1 total fruit and vegetable servings/day, respectively). Fruit juice accounted for 54% of all fruit servings consumed and 42% of all fruit and vegetable servings consumed. Total fruit consumption (fruits plus juice) was correlated with carbohydrate intake (R = 0.46), and inversely correlated with total fat and saturated fat intakes (R = -0.48 and R = -0.36, respectively, both p < 0.0001) and with cholesterol intake (R = -0.21, p < 0.01). Citrus fruit and juice consumption was strongly correlated with vitamin C intake (R = 0.56, p < 0.0001). Total vegetable consumption was strongly correlated with beta-carotene and vitamin A intakes (R = 0.63 and R = 0.32, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Total fruit and vegetable consumption correlated with intakes of beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber, and potassium (R = 0.55, R = 0.31, R = 0.56, R = 0.58, and R = 0.66, respectively, all p < 0.0001). Forty percent of 2-year-old children and 50% of 5-year-old children consumed < 2 servings/day of fruits and vegetables. Ninety-five percent of children consuming > or = 2 servings/day of fruits and vegetables met the RDA for vitamin C vs. 50% of those consuming < 2 servings/day (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, preschool-aged children consumed, on average, about 80% of the recommended fruit servings/day, but only 25% of the recommended vegetable servings/day. Low intakes of fruits and vegetables were associated with inadequate intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C, and dietary fiber, in addition to high intakes of total fat and saturated fat. SN - 0731-5724 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9710848/Fruit_and_vegetable_intake_in_young_children_ L2 - http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.1998.10718778 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -