Use of doxycycline for leptospirosis after high-risk exposure in São Paulo, Brazil.Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1998 Jan-Feb; 40(1):59-61.RI
A clinical trial pilot study, double-blinded, randomized, and controlled with a placebo to assess the effectiveness of oral doxycycline (200 mg, single dose) in preventing leptospirosis after high exposure to potentially contaminated water was performed in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Confirmed cases were defined as those with leptospira IgM antibody and symptoms; asymptomatic cases were those presenting with IgM antibodies but no symptoms; and suspected cases were individuals with symptoms but no IgM antibody. Forty subjects were given doxycycline and 42 were given placebo. In the drug-treated group there were 2 confirmed cases, 11 asymptomatic cases, and 6 suspected cases. In the placebo group there were 5 confirmed, 6 symptomatic, and 5 suspected cases. Even though we found a protective association of doxycycline for confirmed leptospirosis cases (RR = 2.3) and seroconversion only (RR = 2.0), the association was not statistically significant because of the small number of individuals enrolled in this pilot study. We observed that the 22% of the volunteers already had IgM antibodies to leptospirosis at the first sampling. Finally, the attack rate to confirmed, asymptomatic, and suspected cases of Leptospirosis was 8.5%, 22%, and 13%, respectively, in this population.