Mesh diagram cephalometric norms for Americans of African descent.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1998 Aug; 114(2):218-23.AJ
The aim of this study was to establish cephalometric norms for African-American males and females, to compare these measurements with the findings of Alexander's "Alabama analysis," and to construct mesh templates for various age groups. The sample we evaluated included 71 African-Americans, divided into four groups: girls (8 to 12 years), boys (8 to 12 years), adolescent females (13 to 20 years), and adolescent males (13 to 20 years). The subjects met the following criteria: (1) normal Class I dental and skeletal relationship with minimal crowding, (2) balanced facial profile, and (3) no history of orthodontic treatment. The cephalometric radiographs were traced by hand, and linear and angular measurements were averaged to establish a mean with which to locate the anatomic landmarks used in the mesh diagram. In this study the African-Americans differed significantly from white Americans with regard to dental, skeletal, and soft tissue parameters. On average, the African-American subjects displayed larger SNA and ANB angles, more proclined lower incisors, and a more acute interincisal angle than did the white sample. Measurements between our African-American group and that of Alexander's African-American group in the "Alabama analysis" were consistent.