Plasma volume expansion with oral fluids in hypohydrated men at rest and during exercise.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998 Sep; 69(9):837-44.AS
The purpose for this study was to evaluate various carbohydrate (CHO)-electrolyte fluid formulations for consumption by astronauts to maintain or restore their plasma volume (PV) and total body water (TBW) during and after extravehicular activity (exercise experiment, EE) and for a few hours before reentry and immediately after landing (rest experiment RE).
That fluid formulation electrolyte content would be more important than osmotic (Osm) content for increasing or maintaining PV during the RE and EE.
In the RE, 5 healthy men (23-44 yr), previously dehydrated for 24 h, drank 6 fluid formulations (Water, 19.6 Na, 157 Na, 19.6 Na + glucose, and the prepared drinks Performances and Power)--one each at weekly intervals, and then sat for 70 min. In the EE, four healthy 24-h dehydrated men (30-46 yr) exercised for 70 min supine on a cycle ergometer (load = 71 +/- 1% peak VO2).
Rest: Subjects who consumed formulations with total Osm concentrations nearer the normal range (157 Na - 270 mOsm x kg(-1), Performance with 19.6 mEq x L(-1) Na - 380 mOsm, and to some extent Power with 23.5 mEq x L(-1) Na - 390 mOsm) had the greater increases in PV; intake of drink 157 Na, with the largest Na content, induced the greatest hypervolemia of 7.6% (p < 0.05). The various additional ions, in addition to 19.6 Na, probably contributed to the 4.6% (p < 0.05) hypervolemia with Performance. Water was not effective. Exercise: Stabilization of PV between 15-70 min was not related to drink total CHO, Na or Osm content. Performance and 157 Na were no more effective than 19.6 Na or 19.6 Na + glu for PV stabilization. Water was the least effective. Regulatory mechanisms controlling PV during exercise appear to be independent of oral fluid formulation Osm-electrolyte content.
Drink cation (sodium) content is more important that its total osmotic content for increasing plasma volume at rest. Fluid formulations with greater hypervolemic action in resting subjects may not be as effective during exercise; therefore different formulations for use during exercise appear to be necessary.