Triple role of platelet-activating factor in eosinophil migration across monolayers of lung epithelial cells: eosinophil chemoattractant and priming agent and epithelial cell activator.J Immunol. 1998 Sep 15; 161(6):3064-70.JI
Infiltration of eosinophils into the lung lumen is a hallmark of allergic asthmatic inflammation. To reach the lung lumen, eosinophils must migrate across the vascular endothelium, through the interstitial matrix, and across the lung epithelium. The regulation of this process is obscure. In this study, we investigated the migration of human eosinophils across confluent monolayers of either human lung H292 epithelial cells or primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Established eosinophil chemoattractants (IL-8, RANTES, platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4, and complement fragment 5a (C5a)) or activation of the epithelial cells with IL-1beta induced little eosinophil transmigration (<7% in 2 h). In contrast, addition of PAF in combination with C5a induced extensive (>20%) transepithelial migration of unprimed and IL-5-primed eosinophils. Eosinophil migration assessed in a Boyden chamber assay, i.e., without an epithelial monolayer, was only slightly increased upon addition of PAF and C5a. Preincubation of eosinophils with the PAF receptor antagonist WEB 2086 only inhibited migration of unprimed eosinophils toward PAF and C5a, whereas preincubation of epithelial cells with WEB 2086 abolished migration of both IL-5-primed and unprimed eosinophils. This latter result indicated the presence of PAF receptors on epithelial cells. Indeed, addition of PAF to epithelial cells induced an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, which was blocked by the PAF receptor antagonists WEB 2086 and TCV-309. Our results show that PAF induces permissive changes in epithelial cells, and that PAF acts as a chemoattractant and priming agent for the eosinophils.