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Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Animal experiments and epidemiological studies have suggested that high potassium intake may reduce the risk of stroke, but the evidence is inconclusive, and the role of other nutrients in potassium-rich foods remains unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS

We examined the association of potassium and related nutrients with risk of stroke among 43 738 US men, 40 to 75 years old, without diagnosed cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, who completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1986. During 8 years of follow-up, 328 strokes (210 ischemic, 70 hemorrhagic, 48 unspecified) were documented. The multivariate relative risk of stroke of any type for men in the top fifth of potassium intake (median intake, 4.3 g/d) versus those in the bottom (median, 2.4 g/d) was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.88; P for trend=0.007). Results for ischemic stroke alone were similar. Intakes of cereal fiber and magnesium, but not of calcium, were also inversely associated with risk of total stroke. These inverse associations were all stronger in hypertensive than normotensive men and were not materially altered by adjustment for blood pressure levels. Use of potassium supplements was also inversely related to risk of stroke, particularly among men taking diuretics (relative risk, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18, 0.72).

CONCLUSIONS

Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that diets rich in potassium, magnesium, and cereal fiber reduce the risk of stroke, particularly among hypertensive men. Potassium supplements may also be beneficial, but because of potential risks, use should be carefully monitored and restricted to men taking potassium-losing diuretics.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Epidemiology and Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. alberto.ascherio@channing.harvard.edu

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Circulation 98:12 1998 Sep 22 pg 1198-204

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Calcium, Dietary
    Cerebrovascular Disorders
    Dietary Fiber
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Magnesium
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Potassium, Dietary
    Prospective Studies
    Risk

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9743511

    Citation

    Ascherio, A, et al. "Intake of Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, and Fiber and Risk of Stroke Among US Men." Circulation, vol. 98, no. 12, 1998, pp. 1198-204.
    Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernán MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation. 1998;98(12):1198-204.
    Ascherio, A., Rimm, E. B., Hernán, M. A., Giovannucci, E. L., Kawachi, I., Stampfer, M. J., & Willett, W. C. (1998). Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation, 98(12), pp. 1198-204.
    Ascherio A, et al. Intake of Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, and Fiber and Risk of Stroke Among US Men. Circulation. 1998 Sep 22;98(12):1198-204. PubMed PMID: 9743511.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. AU - Ascherio,A, AU - Rimm,E B, AU - Hernán,M A, AU - Giovannucci,E L, AU - Kawachi,I, AU - Stampfer,M J, AU - Willett,W C, PY - 1998/9/22/pubmed PY - 1998/9/22/medline PY - 1998/9/22/entrez SP - 1198 EP - 204 JF - Circulation JO - Circulation VL - 98 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Animal experiments and epidemiological studies have suggested that high potassium intake may reduce the risk of stroke, but the evidence is inconclusive, and the role of other nutrients in potassium-rich foods remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the association of potassium and related nutrients with risk of stroke among 43 738 US men, 40 to 75 years old, without diagnosed cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, who completed a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1986. During 8 years of follow-up, 328 strokes (210 ischemic, 70 hemorrhagic, 48 unspecified) were documented. The multivariate relative risk of stroke of any type for men in the top fifth of potassium intake (median intake, 4.3 g/d) versus those in the bottom (median, 2.4 g/d) was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.88; P for trend=0.007). Results for ischemic stroke alone were similar. Intakes of cereal fiber and magnesium, but not of calcium, were also inversely associated with risk of total stroke. These inverse associations were all stronger in hypertensive than normotensive men and were not materially altered by adjustment for blood pressure levels. Use of potassium supplements was also inversely related to risk of stroke, particularly among men taking diuretics (relative risk, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18, 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Although these data do not prove a causal relationship, they are consistent with the hypothesis that diets rich in potassium, magnesium, and cereal fiber reduce the risk of stroke, particularly among hypertensive men. Potassium supplements may also be beneficial, but because of potential risks, use should be carefully monitored and restricted to men taking potassium-losing diuretics. SN - 0009-7322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9743511/Intake_of_potassium_magnesium_calcium_and_fiber_and_risk_of_stroke_among_US_men_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=linkout&SEARCH=9743511.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -