Clinical and metabolic effects of different parenteral nutrition regimens in patients undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.Transplantation 1998; 66(5):610-6T
Nutrients may interfere with physiological and pathophysiologic mechanisms. The present study was aimed at evaluating whether the differences in the quality of energy substrates administered with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) after cytoreductive therapy may influence the clinical outcome of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
Sixty-six consecutive allogeneic BMT patients with hematologic malignancies were randomized to receive either a glucose-based (100% glucose) or a lipid-based (80% lipid, using an omega-6 long-chain triacylglycerol emulsion + 20% glucose) TPN, providing 146.3 kJ/kg body weight, 1.4 g of protein/kg of body weight, administered from day +1 to day +15 after BMT. Time to engraftment (EGT), incidence of sepsis and metabolic complications (hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia), incidence of acute graft-versus-host-disease (A-GVHD) and relapse, survival at 18 months, incidence of deaths for A-GVHD and relapse were evaluated.
Six patients dropped out before completing the study period. Thirty-one patients in the glucose-based TPN group and 29 patients in the lipid-based TPN group were evaluated. The incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly lower in the lipid-based TPN group than in the glucose-based TPN group (3.4% vs. 32%, respectively; P=0.004). Five patients in the glucose group and none in the lipid group died for A-GVHD (P<0.05). Survival at 18 months tended to be higher in the lipid group than in the glucose group (62% vs. 42%, P=NS). Rate of bone-marrow EGT, time to EGT, incidence of sepsis and fungal infections during TPN, incidence of A-GVHD, and rate of relapse at 18 months were not different in the two groups.
The results obtained suggest that the use of lipid-based TPN after allogeneic BMT is associated with lower incidence of lethal A-GVHD and hyperglycemia, without negatively affecting the EGT of infused cells. Intravenously administered lipids might have influenced the severity of A-GVHD likely via modulation of immune response and synthesis of cytokines, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes that participate in the pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease.