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Covert manipulation of energy density of high carbohydrate diets in 'pseudo free-living' humans.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Sep; 22(9):885-92.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study examined the effects of varying the energy density (ED) of high carbohydrate (HC) diets on food and energy intake (EI), subjective hunger and body weight in humans.

DESIGN

Randomised cross-over design. Subjects were each studied twice during 14 d, throughout which they had ad libitum access to one of two covertly-manipulated diets.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Six healthy men (mean age (s.d.)=32.17 y s.d. (5.26 y), mean weight=69.74 kg s.d. (2.75 kg), mean height=1.76 m s.d. (0.05 m), body mass index (BMI)=22.57 (2.2) kg/m2) were studied. The fat, carbohydrate (CHO) and protein content (as % energy) and ED of each diet were 21:66:13% and 357 kJ/100 g, (low-energy density (LED)) or 22:66:12% and 629 kJ/100 g (high-energy density (HED)). A medium fat diet was provided at maintenance (1.6 x BMR, MF for 2 d) before each ad libitum period. Subjects could alter the amount, but not the composition of foods eaten.

RESULTS

Mean EI was 8.67 and 14.82 MJ/d on the LED and HED diets, respectively. Subjects felt significantly more hungry on the LED diet, than on the HED diet (F(1,160)38.28; P < 0.001) and found the diets to be similarly pleasant (72.72 mm vs 71.54 mm (F(1,392)0.31; P = 0.579)). Mean body weight decreased on the LED diet at a rate of 0.1 kg/d and increased at 0.06 kg/d on the HED diet (F(1,131)86.60; P < 0.001), giving total weight changes of -1.41 kg and +0.84 kg, respectively, both of which were significantly different from zero (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION

Excess EI is possible on HC, HED diets, at least under conditions where diet selection is precluded. Comparison of these results with previous studies, which altered ED using fat, suggests that CHO may be a better cue for hunger than fat.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9756247

Citation

Stubbs, R J., et al. "Covert Manipulation of Energy Density of High Carbohydrate Diets in 'pseudo Free-living' Humans." International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 22, no. 9, 1998, pp. 885-92.
Stubbs RJ, Johnstone AM, Harbron CG, et al. Covert manipulation of energy density of high carbohydrate diets in 'pseudo free-living' humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(9):885-92.
Stubbs, R. J., Johnstone, A. M., Harbron, C. G., & Reid, C. (1998). Covert manipulation of energy density of high carbohydrate diets in 'pseudo free-living' humans. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 22(9), 885-92.
Stubbs RJ, et al. Covert Manipulation of Energy Density of High Carbohydrate Diets in 'pseudo Free-living' Humans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(9):885-92. PubMed PMID: 9756247.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Covert manipulation of energy density of high carbohydrate diets in 'pseudo free-living' humans. AU - Stubbs,R J, AU - Johnstone,A M, AU - Harbron,C G, AU - Reid,C, PY - 1998/10/2/pubmed PY - 1998/10/2/medline PY - 1998/10/2/entrez SP - 885 EP - 92 JF - International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity JO - Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord VL - 22 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of varying the energy density (ED) of high carbohydrate (HC) diets on food and energy intake (EI), subjective hunger and body weight in humans. DESIGN: Randomised cross-over design. Subjects were each studied twice during 14 d, throughout which they had ad libitum access to one of two covertly-manipulated diets. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six healthy men (mean age (s.d.)=32.17 y s.d. (5.26 y), mean weight=69.74 kg s.d. (2.75 kg), mean height=1.76 m s.d. (0.05 m), body mass index (BMI)=22.57 (2.2) kg/m2) were studied. The fat, carbohydrate (CHO) and protein content (as % energy) and ED of each diet were 21:66:13% and 357 kJ/100 g, (low-energy density (LED)) or 22:66:12% and 629 kJ/100 g (high-energy density (HED)). A medium fat diet was provided at maintenance (1.6 x BMR, MF for 2 d) before each ad libitum period. Subjects could alter the amount, but not the composition of foods eaten. RESULTS: Mean EI was 8.67 and 14.82 MJ/d on the LED and HED diets, respectively. Subjects felt significantly more hungry on the LED diet, than on the HED diet (F(1,160)38.28; P < 0.001) and found the diets to be similarly pleasant (72.72 mm vs 71.54 mm (F(1,392)0.31; P = 0.579)). Mean body weight decreased on the LED diet at a rate of 0.1 kg/d and increased at 0.06 kg/d on the HED diet (F(1,131)86.60; P < 0.001), giving total weight changes of -1.41 kg and +0.84 kg, respectively, both of which were significantly different from zero (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Excess EI is possible on HC, HED diets, at least under conditions where diet selection is precluded. Comparison of these results with previous studies, which altered ED using fat, suggests that CHO may be a better cue for hunger than fat. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9756247/Covert_manipulation_of_energy_density_of_high_carbohydrate_diets_in_'pseudo_free_living'_humans_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/carbohydrates.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -