Long-term nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, ifosfamide, and methotrexate in osteosarcoma.Pediatr Nephrol 1998; 12(7):572-5PN
The acute renal effects of chemotherapy are known, but long-term nephrotoxicity has rarely been investigated. The aim of the present study was to assess long-term renal function in children and adolescents who received at-risk chemotherapy, including cisplatin, ifosfamide, and methotrexate, to treat an osteosarcoma. Renal function tests [creatinine clearance, microalbuminuria, and renal excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), and uric acid] were prospectively performed 5.4+/-2.2 (+/-SD) years after chemotherapy (total cumulative dose: methotrexate 41+/-31 g/m2, ifosfamide 39+/-14 g/m2, cisplatin 674+/-188 mg/m2) in 18 children and adolescents. The results were compared with 13 normal volunteers matched for age and sex. Creatinine clearance, which was greater than 80 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in all patients, correlated with the total dose of ifosfamide (r=0.55, P<0.05) and cisplatin (r=0.48, P<0.05). Microalbuminuria was noted in 4 patients. Hypomagnesemia was present in 4 and hypercalciuria in 3 patients; renal excretion of P, Mg, and uric acid was higher in patients than in controls. Glomerular function was not significantly altered and only mild tubular dysfunction was present. Since renal excretion of P and Mg were increased in patients compared with normal volunteers and hypercalciuria was occasionally seen, divalent ion disorders are the most-likely potential complications.