Omeprazole. A review of its use in Helicobacter pylori infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Drugs. 1998 Sep; 56(3):447-86.D
Omeprazole is a well studied proton pump inhibitor that reduces gastric acid secretion. This review examines its use in Helicobacter pylori infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) with or without oesophagitis and gastrointestinal damage caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Optimal omeprazole regimens for anti-H. pylori therapy are those that administer the drug at a dosage of 40 mg/day (in 1 or 2 divided doses) for 7, 10 or 14 days in combination with 2 antibacterial agents. As a component of 3-drug regimens in direct comparative studies, omeprazole was at least as effective as lansoprazole, pantoprazole, bismuth compounds and ranitidine. However, a meta-analysis suggests that triple therapies with omeprazole are more effective than comparable regimens containing ranitidine, lansoprazole or bismuth. Omeprazole also appears to be successful in triple therapy regimens used in children with H. pylori infection. In patients with acute GORD with oesophagitis, omeprazole is at least as effective as lansoprazole or pantoprazole in promoting healing, and superior to ranitidine, cimetidine or cisapride in oesophagitis healing and symptom relief. Omeprazole was similar to lansoprazole and superior to ranitidine in preventing oesophagitis relapse in patients with all grades of oesophagitis, but may be superior to lansoprazole or pantoprazole in patients with more severe disease. More patients with symptomatic GORD without oesophagitis experienced symptom relief after short term treatment with omeprazole than with ranitidine, cisapride or placebo, and symptoms were more readily prevented by omeprazole than by cimetidine or placebo. Omeprazole was effective in healing and relieving symptoms of reflux oesophagitis in children with oesophagitis refractory to histamine H2 receptor antagonists. Omeprazole is superior to placebo in preventing NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage in patients who must continue to take NSAIDs. It is also similar to misoprostol and superior to ranitidine in its ability to heal NSAID-induced peptic ulcers and erosions, and superior to misoprostol, ranitidine or placebo in its ability to prevent relapse. In long and short term studies, omeprazole was well tolerated, with diarrhoea, headache, dizziness, flatulence, abdominal pain and constipation being the most commonly reported adverse events. Usual omeprazole dosages, alone or combined with other agents, are 10 to 40 mg/day for adults and 10 to 20 mg/day for children.
Omeprazole is a well studied and well tolerated agent effective in adults or children as a component in regimens aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections or as monotherapy in the treatment and prophylaxis of GORD with or without oesophagitis or NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage.