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[A 64-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance and dementia for one year].
No To Shinkei. 1998 Sep; 50(9):861-70.NT

Abstract

We report a 64-year-old Japanese woman who died one year after the onset of progressive gait disturbance and dementia. She noted a difficulty in holding a glass and hand tremor in June of 1996 when she was 63 years old. In July of 1996, she tended to lean toward left when she walked. She also noted truncal titubation. In November of 1996, she started to have visual hallucination and delusion in which she said "I see something is flying on the wall.", "Somebody has come into my room", and things like that. She was admitted to our service on November 22, 1996. On admission, she was alert and general physical examination was unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed disturbance in recent memory. Hasegawa's dementia rating scale was 22/30. She showed vivid visual hallucination with colors in which she saw faces of dwarfs and angels, a space ship, and others. Higher cerebral functions were normal. She showed left oculomotor palsy which was a sequel of an aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage nine years before. Otherwise cranial nerves were unremarkable. She showed ataxic gait, limb ataxia, truncal titubation, and postural hand tremor. She had no weakness and no muscle atrophy. Deep tendon reflexes were within normal limits. Plantar response was flexor. Sensation was intact. Laboratory examination was also unremarkable. Complete survey for occult malignancy was negative. CSF was under a normal pressure and cell count was 1/microliter, total protein 27 mg/dl, and sugar 68 mg/dl. Cranial CT scan was unremarkable. MRI was not obtained because of the presence of an aneurysm clip in the left internal carotid-posterior communication artery junction. She showed progressive deterioration in her mental function. By January 1997, she became unable to stand or walk with marked dementia. Repeated CSF exams and cranial CT scans were unremarkable. She suffered from several episodes of aspiration pneumonia. A trial of three days methylprednisolone pulse therapy was given starting on March 7, 1997, which was of no effect on her neurologic status. On March 28, 1997, she was intubated because of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In April 2, her body temperature rose to 38 degrees C. On April 9, 1997, her blood pressure dropped and resuscitation was unsuccessful. She was pronounced dead on the same day. The patient was discussed in a neurologic CPC and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had primary leptomeningeal lymphoma. Other possibilities entertained among the audience included brain stem encephalitis of unknown type, carcinomatous cerebellar degeneration plus limbic encephalitis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, thalamic degeneration, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Post-mortem examination revealed thickening and clouding of the leptomeninges; Gram-positive diplococci were found in the leptomeninges. This meningitis appeared to have been an complication in the terminal stage of her illness. Microscopic examination revealed astrocytosis in the midbrain tegmentum. Cerebral cortices showed only mild astrtocytosis. No cerebellar atrophy was seen and Purkinje cells were retained which excluded paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Neuropathologic diagnosis was bacterial meningitis, however, the presence of brain stem encephalitis prior to the onset of bacterial meningitis could not be excluded. It is interesting to note that the diagnosis of the primary neurologic disease of this patient was not easy even after autopsy. As autopsy permission was obtained only for the brain, it was not clear whether or not this patient had an occult malignancy somewhere in her body, however, there was no evidence to indicate paraneoplastic degeneration of the central nervous system. As the patient did not have meningeal signs until one month before her death, it is difficult to ascribe her entire neurologic problems to her meningitis. Finally, her visual hallucination was vivid and colorful; we thought this might have been

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Case Reports
Clinical Conference
English Abstract
Journal Article

Language

jpn

PubMed ID

9789311

Citation

Sugita, Y, et al. "[A 64-year-old Woman With Progressive Gait Disturbance and Dementia for One Year]." No to Shinkei = Brain and Nerve, vol. 50, no. 9, 1998, pp. 861-70.
Sugita Y, Matsumine H, Wakiya M, et al. [A 64-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance and dementia for one year]. No To Shinkei. 1998;50(9):861-70.
Sugita, Y., Matsumine, H., Wakiya, M., Mori, H., Suda, K., Kondo, T., & Mizuno, Y. (1998). [A 64-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance and dementia for one year]. No to Shinkei = Brain and Nerve, 50(9), 861-70.
Sugita Y, et al. [A 64-year-old Woman With Progressive Gait Disturbance and Dementia for One Year]. No To Shinkei. 1998;50(9):861-70. PubMed PMID: 9789311.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [A 64-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance and dementia for one year]. AU - Sugita,Y, AU - Matsumine,H, AU - Wakiya,M, AU - Mori,H, AU - Suda,K, AU - Kondo,T, AU - Mizuno,Y, PY - 1998/10/28/pubmed PY - 1998/10/28/medline PY - 1998/10/28/entrez SP - 861 EP - 70 JF - No to shinkei = Brain and nerve JO - No To Shinkei VL - 50 IS - 9 N2 - We report a 64-year-old Japanese woman who died one year after the onset of progressive gait disturbance and dementia. She noted a difficulty in holding a glass and hand tremor in June of 1996 when she was 63 years old. In July of 1996, she tended to lean toward left when she walked. She also noted truncal titubation. In November of 1996, she started to have visual hallucination and delusion in which she said "I see something is flying on the wall.", "Somebody has come into my room", and things like that. She was admitted to our service on November 22, 1996. On admission, she was alert and general physical examination was unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed disturbance in recent memory. Hasegawa's dementia rating scale was 22/30. She showed vivid visual hallucination with colors in which she saw faces of dwarfs and angels, a space ship, and others. Higher cerebral functions were normal. She showed left oculomotor palsy which was a sequel of an aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage nine years before. Otherwise cranial nerves were unremarkable. She showed ataxic gait, limb ataxia, truncal titubation, and postural hand tremor. She had no weakness and no muscle atrophy. Deep tendon reflexes were within normal limits. Plantar response was flexor. Sensation was intact. Laboratory examination was also unremarkable. Complete survey for occult malignancy was negative. CSF was under a normal pressure and cell count was 1/microliter, total protein 27 mg/dl, and sugar 68 mg/dl. Cranial CT scan was unremarkable. MRI was not obtained because of the presence of an aneurysm clip in the left internal carotid-posterior communication artery junction. She showed progressive deterioration in her mental function. By January 1997, she became unable to stand or walk with marked dementia. Repeated CSF exams and cranial CT scans were unremarkable. She suffered from several episodes of aspiration pneumonia. A trial of three days methylprednisolone pulse therapy was given starting on March 7, 1997, which was of no effect on her neurologic status. On March 28, 1997, she was intubated because of acute respiratory distress syndrome. In April 2, her body temperature rose to 38 degrees C. On April 9, 1997, her blood pressure dropped and resuscitation was unsuccessful. She was pronounced dead on the same day. The patient was discussed in a neurologic CPC and the chief discussant arrived at the conclusion that the patient had primary leptomeningeal lymphoma. Other possibilities entertained among the audience included brain stem encephalitis of unknown type, carcinomatous cerebellar degeneration plus limbic encephalitis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, thalamic degeneration, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Post-mortem examination revealed thickening and clouding of the leptomeninges; Gram-positive diplococci were found in the leptomeninges. This meningitis appeared to have been an complication in the terminal stage of her illness. Microscopic examination revealed astrocytosis in the midbrain tegmentum. Cerebral cortices showed only mild astrtocytosis. No cerebellar atrophy was seen and Purkinje cells were retained which excluded paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Neuropathologic diagnosis was bacterial meningitis, however, the presence of brain stem encephalitis prior to the onset of bacterial meningitis could not be excluded. It is interesting to note that the diagnosis of the primary neurologic disease of this patient was not easy even after autopsy. As autopsy permission was obtained only for the brain, it was not clear whether or not this patient had an occult malignancy somewhere in her body, however, there was no evidence to indicate paraneoplastic degeneration of the central nervous system. As the patient did not have meningeal signs until one month before her death, it is difficult to ascribe her entire neurologic problems to her meningitis. Finally, her visual hallucination was vivid and colorful; we thought this might have been SN - 0006-8969 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9789311/[A_64_year_old_woman_with_progressive_gait_disturbance_and_dementia_for_one_year]_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/meningitis.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -