Interaction of sickle erythrocytes with endothelial cells in the presence of endothelial cell conditioned medium induces oxidant stress leading to transendothelial migration of monocytes.Blood 1998; 92(10):3924-35Blood
The abnormal adherence of sickle red blood cells (SS RBC) to endothelial cells has been thought to contribute to vascular occlusion, a major cause of morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD). We determined whether the interaction of SS RBC with cultured endothelial cells induced cellular oxidant stress that would culminate in expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) involved in the adhesion and diapedesis of monocytes and the adherence of SS reticulocytes. We showed that the interaction of SS RBC at 2% concentration in the presence of multimers of von Willebrand factor (vWf), derived from endothelial cell-derived conditioned medium (E-CM) with cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), resulted in a fivefold increased formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and activation of the transcription factor NF-kB, both indicators of cellular oxidant stress. Normal RBC show none of these phenomena. The oxidant stress-induced signaling resulted in an increased surface expression of a subset of CAMs, ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 in HUVEC. The addition of oxygen radical scavenger enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase) and antioxidant (probucol) inhibited these events. Additionally, preincubation of HUVEC with a synthetic peptide Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) that prevents vWf-mediated adhesion of SS RBC reduced the surface expression of VCAM-1 and NF-kB activation. Furthermore, SS RBC-induced oxidant stress resulted in a twofold increase in the transendothelial migration of both monocyte-like HL-60 cells and human peripheral blood monocytes, and approximately a sixfold increase in platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) phosphorylation, each of which was blocked by protein kinase C inhibitor and antioxidants. These results suggest that the adherence/contact of SS RBC to endothelial cells in large vessel can generate enhanced oxidant stress leading to increased adhesion and diapedesis of monocytes, as well as heightened adherence of SS reticulocytes, indicating that injury/activation of endothelium can contribute to vaso-occlusion in SCD.