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Osteoporosis and determinants of bone density in patients with Crohn's disease.

Abstract

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in patients with Crohn's disease; however, the pathogenesis of bone loss and risk factors for osteoporosis are not established. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical, dietary, and nutritional determinants of BMD in Crohn's disease. A cross-sectional analysis of 117 patients with Crohn's disease was undertaken. All patients underwent a clinical and dietary evaluation including assessment of nutritional state and life-style. BMD was measured at the hip and lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and z scores obtained by comparison with age- and sex-matched normal values for the healthy UK population. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between BMD and potential risk factors, allowing for possible confounding variables. Thirteen (11%) patients had osteoporosis (z score < -2), with osteopenia (z score < -1, > -2) in a further 34 (29%). Patients with jejunal disease had significantly lower BMD at the spine (P = 0.03) and femoral neck (P = 0.02) than those with disease at other sites. Mean BMD was significantly lower at the hip of patients with previous bowel resection (diff in means = 0.53, 95% CI -0.97, -0.08, P = 0.02), but type of surgery was not significant. Active disease, menstrual history, diet, level of physical activity, and smoking were not associated with low bone mass. At the lumbar spine, body weight (P < 0.0001), male sex (P < 0.0001), and current prednisolone use (P < 0.02) were independently predictive of low bone mass. Body weight (P < 0.0001), male sex (P < 0.0001), and cumulative steroid dose (P = 0.02) were predictive at the femoral neck. The major determinants of BMD in Crohn's disease are body weight, current steroid use, and cumulative steroid dose. Men with Crohn's disease are at greatest risk of osteoporosis, with jejunal involvement and previous bowel resection also contributing to the low bone mineral density.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Gastrointestinal Research Unit, Leicester General Hospital, UK.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Digestive diseases and sciences 43:11 1998 Nov pg 2500-6

    MeSH

    Absorptiometry, Photon
    Adult
    Analysis of Variance
    Bone Density
    Crohn Disease
    Female
    Femur
    Humans
    Lumbar Vertebrae
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multivariate Analysis
    Osteoporosis
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9824142

    Citation

    Robinson, R J., et al. "Osteoporosis and Determinants of Bone Density in Patients With Crohn's Disease." Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 43, no. 11, 1998, pp. 2500-6.
    Robinson RJ, al-Azzawi F, Iqbal SJ, et al. Osteoporosis and determinants of bone density in patients with Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1998;43(11):2500-6.
    Robinson, R. J., al-Azzawi, F., Iqbal, S. J., Kryswcki, T., Almond, L., Abrams, K., & Mayberry, J. F. (1998). Osteoporosis and determinants of bone density in patients with Crohn's disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 43(11), pp. 2500-6.
    Robinson RJ, et al. Osteoporosis and Determinants of Bone Density in Patients With Crohn's Disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1998;43(11):2500-6. PubMed PMID: 9824142.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Osteoporosis and determinants of bone density in patients with Crohn's disease. AU - Robinson,R J, AU - al-Azzawi,F, AU - Iqbal,S J, AU - Kryswcki,T, AU - Almond,L, AU - Abrams,K, AU - Mayberry,J F, PY - 1998/11/21/pubmed PY - 1998/11/21/medline PY - 1998/11/21/entrez SP - 2500 EP - 6 JF - Digestive diseases and sciences JO - Dig. Dis. Sci. VL - 43 IS - 11 N2 - Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in patients with Crohn's disease; however, the pathogenesis of bone loss and risk factors for osteoporosis are not established. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical, dietary, and nutritional determinants of BMD in Crohn's disease. A cross-sectional analysis of 117 patients with Crohn's disease was undertaken. All patients underwent a clinical and dietary evaluation including assessment of nutritional state and life-style. BMD was measured at the hip and lumbar spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and z scores obtained by comparison with age- and sex-matched normal values for the healthy UK population. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between BMD and potential risk factors, allowing for possible confounding variables. Thirteen (11%) patients had osteoporosis (z score < -2), with osteopenia (z score < -1, > -2) in a further 34 (29%). Patients with jejunal disease had significantly lower BMD at the spine (P = 0.03) and femoral neck (P = 0.02) than those with disease at other sites. Mean BMD was significantly lower at the hip of patients with previous bowel resection (diff in means = 0.53, 95% CI -0.97, -0.08, P = 0.02), but type of surgery was not significant. Active disease, menstrual history, diet, level of physical activity, and smoking were not associated with low bone mass. At the lumbar spine, body weight (P < 0.0001), male sex (P < 0.0001), and current prednisolone use (P < 0.02) were independently predictive of low bone mass. Body weight (P < 0.0001), male sex (P < 0.0001), and cumulative steroid dose (P = 0.02) were predictive at the femoral neck. The major determinants of BMD in Crohn's disease are body weight, current steroid use, and cumulative steroid dose. Men with Crohn's disease are at greatest risk of osteoporosis, with jejunal involvement and previous bowel resection also contributing to the low bone mineral density. SN - 0163-2116 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9824142/Osteoporosis_and_determinants_of_bone_density_in_patients_with_Crohn's_disease_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&amp;PAGE=linkout&amp;SEARCH=9824142.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -