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Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: a controlled prospective study.
J Bone Miner Res. 1998 Dec; 13(12):1814-21.JB

Abstract

Cross-sectional studies of elite athletes suggest that growth is an opportune time for exercise to increase areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, as the exercise undertaken by athletes is beyond the reach of most individuals, these studies provide little basis for making recommendations regarding the role of exercise in musculoskeletal health in the community. To determine whether moderate exercise increases bone mass, size, areal, and volumetric BMD, two socioeconomically equivalent schools were randomly allocated to be the source of an exercise group or controls. Twenty boys (mean age 10.4 years, range 8.4-11.8) allocated to 8 months of 30-minute sessions of weight-bearing physical education lessons three times weekly were compared with 20 controls matched for age, standing and sitting height, weight, and baseline areal BMD. Areal BMD, measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, increased in both groups at all sites, except at the head and arms. The increase in areal BMD in the exercise group was twice that in controls; lumbar spine (0.61 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.09%/month), legs (0.76 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.34 +/- 0.08%/month), and total body (0.32 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.06%/month) (all p < 0.05). In the exercise group, femoral midshaft cortical thickness increased by 0.97 +/- 0. 32%/month due to a 0.93 +/- 0.33%/month decrease in endocortical (medullary) diameter (both p < 0.05). There was no periosteal expansion so that volumetric BMD increased by 1.14 +/- 0.33%/month, (p < 0.05). Cortical thickness and volumetric BMD did not change in controls. Femoral midshaft section modulus increased by 2.34 +/- 2. 35 cm3 in the exercise group, and 3.04 +/- 1.14 cm3 in controls (p < 0.05). The growing skeleton is sensitive to exercise. Moderate and readily accessible weight-bearing exercise undertaken before puberty may increase femoral volumetric BMD by increasing cortical thickness. Although endocortical apposition may be a less effective means of increasing bone strength than periosteal apposition, both mechanisms will result in higher cortical thickness that is likely to offset bone fragility conferred by menopause-related and age-related endocortical bone resorption.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Endocrine Unit and Department of Medicine, Austin and Repatriation Medical Center, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9844098

Citation

Bradney, M, et al. "Moderate Exercise During Growth in Prepubertal Boys: Changes in Bone Mass, Size, Volumetric Density, and Bone Strength: a Controlled Prospective Study." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 13, no. 12, 1998, pp. 1814-21.
Bradney M, Pearce G, Naughton G, et al. Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: a controlled prospective study. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13(12):1814-21.
Bradney, M., Pearce, G., Naughton, G., Sullivan, C., Bass, S., Beck, T., Carlson, J., & Seeman, E. (1998). Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: a controlled prospective study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 13(12), 1814-21.
Bradney M, et al. Moderate Exercise During Growth in Prepubertal Boys: Changes in Bone Mass, Size, Volumetric Density, and Bone Strength: a Controlled Prospective Study. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13(12):1814-21. PubMed PMID: 9844098.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Moderate exercise during growth in prepubertal boys: changes in bone mass, size, volumetric density, and bone strength: a controlled prospective study. AU - Bradney,M, AU - Pearce,G, AU - Naughton,G, AU - Sullivan,C, AU - Bass,S, AU - Beck,T, AU - Carlson,J, AU - Seeman,E, PY - 1998/12/9/pubmed PY - 1998/12/9/medline PY - 1998/12/9/entrez SP - 1814 EP - 21 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J Bone Miner Res VL - 13 IS - 12 N2 - Cross-sectional studies of elite athletes suggest that growth is an opportune time for exercise to increase areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, as the exercise undertaken by athletes is beyond the reach of most individuals, these studies provide little basis for making recommendations regarding the role of exercise in musculoskeletal health in the community. To determine whether moderate exercise increases bone mass, size, areal, and volumetric BMD, two socioeconomically equivalent schools were randomly allocated to be the source of an exercise group or controls. Twenty boys (mean age 10.4 years, range 8.4-11.8) allocated to 8 months of 30-minute sessions of weight-bearing physical education lessons three times weekly were compared with 20 controls matched for age, standing and sitting height, weight, and baseline areal BMD. Areal BMD, measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, increased in both groups at all sites, except at the head and arms. The increase in areal BMD in the exercise group was twice that in controls; lumbar spine (0.61 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.09%/month), legs (0.76 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.34 +/- 0.08%/month), and total body (0.32 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.17 +/- 0.06%/month) (all p < 0.05). In the exercise group, femoral midshaft cortical thickness increased by 0.97 +/- 0. 32%/month due to a 0.93 +/- 0.33%/month decrease in endocortical (medullary) diameter (both p < 0.05). There was no periosteal expansion so that volumetric BMD increased by 1.14 +/- 0.33%/month, (p < 0.05). Cortical thickness and volumetric BMD did not change in controls. Femoral midshaft section modulus increased by 2.34 +/- 2. 35 cm3 in the exercise group, and 3.04 +/- 1.14 cm3 in controls (p < 0.05). The growing skeleton is sensitive to exercise. Moderate and readily accessible weight-bearing exercise undertaken before puberty may increase femoral volumetric BMD by increasing cortical thickness. Although endocortical apposition may be a less effective means of increasing bone strength than periosteal apposition, both mechanisms will result in higher cortical thickness that is likely to offset bone fragility conferred by menopause-related and age-related endocortical bone resorption. SN - 0884-0431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9844098/Moderate_exercise_during_growth_in_prepubertal_boys:_changes_in_bone_mass_size_volumetric_density_and_bone_strength:_a_controlled_prospective_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.12.1814 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -