Chemical modification of proteins by methylglyoxal.Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 1998; 44(7):1139-45CM
Methylglyoxal is formed in vivo by spontaneous decomposition of triose phosphate intermediates in aerobic glycolysis. It may also be formed during oxidative degradation of both carbohydrates (pentoses and ascorbate) and lipids (arachidonate). In addition to reaction with arginine residues to form imidazolone adducts, methylglyoxal reacts with lysine residues in protein to form N(epsilon)-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and the imidazolium crosslink, methylglyoxal-lysine dimer (MOLD). Like the glycoxidation products, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and glyoxal-lysine dimer (GOLD) which are formed on reaction of glyoxal with protein, CEL and MOLD increase in lens proteins and skin collagen with age. CML and CEL also increase in skin collagen in diabetes, while all four compounds increase in plasma proteins in uremia. Overall, CML, CEL, GOLD and MOLD are quantitatively the major biomarkers of the Maillard reaction in tissue proteins. GOLD and MOLD, in particular, are present at 10-50 fold higher concentrations than the fluorescent crosslink, pentosidine. Together, these dicarbonyl-derived advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) represent the major chemical modifications that accumulate in tissue proteins with age and in chronic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis.