Determination of low-molecular-weight heparins and their binding to protamine and a protamine analog using polyion-sensitive membrane electrodes.Anal Biochem 1999; 266(1):116-24AB
A polycation-sensitive membrane electrode based on the ion-exchanger dinonylnaphthalene sulfonate has previously been developed and used as an end-point detector for the determination of unfractionated heparin in whole blood samples via simple potentiometric titration with protamine. Herein, we report the application of the same methodology for the quantitation of a commercial low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) preparation (Fragmin) in whole blood samples at concentrations up to 2 U/ml. Further, an analogous polyanion (heparin)-sensitive electrode is used to estimate the binding constants between protamine and various LMWH preparations. The equilibrium constants (Keq) and the number of binding sites per mole of heparin (n) are determined by recasting the data in the form of a Scatchard plot. Results show that the average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the LMWH preparation are important parameters affecting their binding with protamine. Comparable binding constants are obtained for the same LMWH preparations titrated with a synthetic protamine analog, [+18RGD] [acetyl-EA(R2A2R2A)4R2GRGDSPA-NH2].