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Estimates of the risk of cardiovascular death attributable to low-dose oral contraceptives in the United States.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jan; 180(1 Pt 1):241-9.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Our purpose was to estimate the annual risk of death in the United States from cardiovascular disease attributable to low-dose combination oral contraceptives.

STUDY DESIGN

Estimates of the risk of death from cardiovascular disease attributable to low-dose oral contraceptives were modeled on data from studies published through 1997 and from age-specific mortality rates in the United States for 1993 and 1994.

RESULTS

Attributable risk of death from cardiovascular disease resulting from oral contraceptive use is 0.06 and 3.0 per 100,000 nonsmokers 15 to 34 years of age and 35 to 44 years of age, respectively. In smokers this risk increases, respectively, to 1.73 and 19.4 per 100,000 users in these 2 age groups; however, 97% and 85% of this risk is due to the combined effects of smoking and using oral contraceptives. The attributable risk of death from cardiovascular disease in nonsmoking oral contraceptive users is lower than the risk of death from pregnancy in nonusers of oral contraceptives at all ages; however, among smoking oral contraceptive users more than 35 years of age, the excess risk of death from oral contraceptives is higher than the risk of death from pregnancy.

CONCLUSION

There is virtually no excess attributable risk of death from cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use in young women. However, smokers more than 35 years of age should use a nonestrogen contraceptive.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Family Health International, Biomedical Affairs Department, Research Triangle Park, Durham, North Carolina 27709, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

9914611

Citation

Schwingl, P J., et al. "Estimates of the Risk of Cardiovascular Death Attributable to Low-dose Oral Contraceptives in the United States." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 180, no. 1 Pt 1, 1999, pp. 241-9.
Schwingl PJ, Ory HW, Visness CM. Estimates of the risk of cardiovascular death attributable to low-dose oral contraceptives in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(1 Pt 1):241-9.
Schwingl, P. J., Ory, H. W., & Visness, C. M. (1999). Estimates of the risk of cardiovascular death attributable to low-dose oral contraceptives in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180(1 Pt 1), 241-9.
Schwingl PJ, Ory HW, Visness CM. Estimates of the Risk of Cardiovascular Death Attributable to Low-dose Oral Contraceptives in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(1 Pt 1):241-9. PubMed PMID: 9914611.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimates of the risk of cardiovascular death attributable to low-dose oral contraceptives in the United States. AU - Schwingl,P J, AU - Ory,H W, AU - Visness,C M, PY - 1999/1/23/pubmed PY - 1999/1/23/medline PY - 1999/1/23/entrez KW - Age Factors--women KW - Americas KW - Behavior KW - Biology KW - Cardiovascular Effects--women KW - Cerebrovascular Effects--women KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Correlation Studies KW - Death Rate--women KW - Demographic Factors KW - Developed Countries KW - Diseases KW - Embolism KW - Excess Mortality--women KW - Family Planning KW - Heart Diseases KW - Mortality KW - Myocardial Infarction--women KW - North America KW - Northern America KW - Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Physiology KW - Population KW - Population Characteristics KW - Population Dynamics KW - Pulmonary Embolism--women KW - Research Methodology KW - Research Report KW - Risk Factors--women KW - Smoking--women KW - Statistical Studies KW - Studies KW - Thromboembolism--women KW - United States KW - Vascular Diseases KW - Women SP - 241 EP - 9 JF - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology JO - Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. VL - 180 IS - 1 Pt 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to estimate the annual risk of death in the United States from cardiovascular disease attributable to low-dose combination oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: Estimates of the risk of death from cardiovascular disease attributable to low-dose oral contraceptives were modeled on data from studies published through 1997 and from age-specific mortality rates in the United States for 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Attributable risk of death from cardiovascular disease resulting from oral contraceptive use is 0.06 and 3.0 per 100,000 nonsmokers 15 to 34 years of age and 35 to 44 years of age, respectively. In smokers this risk increases, respectively, to 1.73 and 19.4 per 100,000 users in these 2 age groups; however, 97% and 85% of this risk is due to the combined effects of smoking and using oral contraceptives. The attributable risk of death from cardiovascular disease in nonsmoking oral contraceptive users is lower than the risk of death from pregnancy in nonusers of oral contraceptives at all ages; however, among smoking oral contraceptive users more than 35 years of age, the excess risk of death from oral contraceptives is higher than the risk of death from pregnancy. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no excess attributable risk of death from cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use in young women. However, smokers more than 35 years of age should use a nonestrogen contraceptive. SN - 0002-9378 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9914611/Estimates_of_the_risk_of_cardiovascular_death_attributable_to_low_dose_oral_contraceptives_in_the_United_States_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9378(99)70182-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -