Urolithiasis in dogs V: regional comparisons of breed, age, sex, anatomic location, and mineral type of calculus.Am J Vet Res. 1999 Jan; 60(1):29-42.AJ
To determine extent and nature of regional differences in distribution of canine urinary calculi.
13,552 calculus specimens: 7,056 (52.1%) from females, 6,492 (47.9%) from males, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure Records were used to compile information from all specimens submitted between July 1981 and December 1995. Results from mixed-breed and various breeds of stone-forming dogs were analyzed. Interrelations of breed, sex, and age of dogs, and anatomic location and mineral composition of specimens were analyzed and compared for 6 US geographic regions.
Struvite-, apatite-, and urate-containing calculi were reported significantly most often from female dogs of the Mountain/Pacific region. Oxalate-, silica-, and brushite-containing calculi were reported significantly most often from male dogs in the New England/mid-Atlantic (NEMA) region. Cystine-containing calculi were reported most frequently from the NEMA and South Central (SC) regions. Dogs from the NEMA region were oldest in average age at diagnosis. Significant regional differences in distribution were found for several breeds. Sex distribution of renal calculi in 11 breeds of dogs (Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Shih Tzu, Basset Hound, Pug, Mastiff, Bichon Frise, Doberman Pinscher, Dalmatian, English Bulldog, and Pekingese) reported to be at high risk of renal lithiasis differed among the 6 geographic regions. Renal and ureteral calculi were reported significantly most often from dogs in the South Atlantic region, and bladder and urethral calculi were reported most often from dogs in the SC region.
Wide regional differences exist in distribution of stone-forming dogs by sex, average age at diagnosis, breed, and minerals contained within and anatomic location of calculi.