Interleukin-1beta regulation of the human brain natriuretic peptide promoter involves Ras-, Rac-, and p38 kinase-dependent pathways in cardiac myocytes.Hypertension. 1999 Jan; 33(1 Pt 2):283-9.H
Because both the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) gene and the cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) are induced in the infarcted myocardium, localized production of IL-1beta may regulate the BNP gene. We tested whether (1) IL-1beta regulates the human BNP promoter, (2) cis elements in the proximal promoter respond to IL-1beta, and (3) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways [p42/44, c-jun (JNK) and p38 kinase] are involved. We transferred the hBNP promoter coupled to a luciferase reporter gene or constructs with mutations in the proximal promoter GATA and M-CAT elements into neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and treated the cells with IL-1beta for 24 hours. IL-1beta-stimulated hBNP luciferase activity was eliminated by pretreatment with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. Both the p38 kinase inhibitor SB205380 (SB) and cotransfection of a dominant-negative mutant of p38 kinase reduced IL-1beta stimulation of the hBNP promoter. Dominant-negative mutants of Ras and Rac inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated hBNP luciferase activity by 64% and 90%, respectively. Constitutively active forms of Rac and MKK6, the immediate upstream activator of p38, were stimulatory; however, only the effect of MKK6 was inhibited by SB. Neither the p42/44 nor the JNK pathway was involved in the action of IL-1beta. Both IL-1beta and MKK6 activation of the hBNP promoter were partially reduced when the promoter contained a mutated M-CAT element. In summary, (1) IL-1beta is a transcriptional activator of the hBNP promoter; (2) IL-1beta acts through a Ras-dependent pathway not coupled to activation of p42/44 MAPK or JNK; (3) IL-1beta acts through a Rac-dependent pathway, but the downstream effector is not known; and (4) IL-1beta activation of p38 kinase is partially involved in regulation of the hBNP promoter, targeting the proximal M-CAT element.