In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the enhancing activity of glycyrrhizin on the intestinal absorption of drugs.Pharm Res. 1999 Jan; 16(1):80-6.PR
The enhancing activity of dipotassium glycyrrhizinate (Grz) on the intestinal absorption of drugs has been demonstrated in an in vitro study using Caco-2 cell monolayers and in an in vivo absorption study in rats.
The hydrolysis of Grz by luminal content and mucosa of the rat colon was investigated. The absorption-enhancing activity of Grz and its hydrolysates was estimated by changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the permeation of sodium fluorescein (Flu-Na) in Caco-2 cell monolayers. It was further evaluated through the absorption of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in the rat colon.
Grz was not hydrolyzed to glycyrrhetinylmonoglucuronide (GrMG) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) by colonic mucosa, but, rather by the beta-glucuronidase in colonic flora. The hydrolysis of Grz to GrMG was extremely slow and the GrMG produced was rapidly regenerated to GA. Grz and GrMG had no effect on TEER nor on the permeability of Flu-Na across Caco-2 cell monolayers. On the other hand, GA decreased TEER and increased the permeability of Flu-Na in a dose-dependent manner. However, Grz and GrMG enhanced the plasma calcium-lowering effect of sCT after administration in the rat colon. The coadministration of sCT and GA in the rat colon induced the strongest plasma calcium-lowering effect and the highest plasma concentration of sCT.
The in vivo enhancing-activity of Grz in the absorption of drugs is dependent on GA, a hydrolysis product of Grz resulting from the action of beta-glucuronidase in intestinal flora.