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Unbound Medicine.
(Am Rev Respir Dis[TA])
12,255 results
  • Cell adhesion molecules and the bronchial epithelium. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 2):S79-82.Roche WR, Montefort S, … Holgate ST
  • The bronchial epithelium is the major barrier between the host and the provoking antigens in bronchial asthma. Recent studies have indicated that the epithelium is a truly stratified structure, with the superficial columnar cells depending on the underlying basal cells for anchorage. Only columnar cells are shed into bronchial lavage fluid. The epithelium is more fragile in asthma and more cells …
  • Adhesion molecules and cytokine production. [Review]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 2):S70-4.Dayer JM, Isler P, Nicod LP
  • The exchange of cross-talks between cells relies on soluble factors or direct cell-cell contact. Soluble factors increase the expression of cell surface molecules that activate adjacent cells by direct contact to produce cytokines. In the lung, dendritic cells are potent inducers of T-cell proliferation, and the interaction between the two leads to the production of high amounts of TNF alpha and …
  • Molecular mechanisms mediating lymphocyte recirculation, inflammation, and metastasis formation. [Review]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 2):S65-9.Meuer SC, Schraven B, Samstag Y
  • A multitude of glycoproteins expressed in cellular membranes have been identified by monoclonal antibodies. Besides mediating transient cell/cell contacts, these molecules unequivocally function as receptor structures capable of transmitting signals for cell growth and differentiation. They are the central determinators of local immune responses, and they allow an adjustment of the recirculating …
  • Mechanisms of neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation in vivo. [Review]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 2):S60-4.Nourshargh S
  • The accumulation of leukocytes into tissues is a characteristic feature of inflammatory reactions. This process is triggered by chemical signals generated in a tissue in response to an inflammatory stimulus e.g., invading microbes, other foreign organisms, allergens, or damaged tissue cells. The mechanisms involved in neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation in vivo are complex and dependent on an …
  • Identification and characterization of novel airway epithelial integrins. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 2):S38-42.Sheppard D
  • Integrins are heterodimeric glycoproteins that mediate cell-to-matrix and some cell-to-cell interactions. Recent evidence underscores the important roles of these receptors in signaling machines that transduce positional information into complex changes in cell behavior. As such, integrins have been shown to play critical roles in cell growth, differentiation, and migration. Most cells express mu…
  • Adhesion molecules in the lung. An overview. [Review]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 2):S31-7.Pilewski JM, Albelda SM
  • Several distinct cell adhesion molecule families have recently been identified and found to be important in the inflammatory response and for epithelial and endothelial homeostasis. The integrin family of adhesion molecules functions in both cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions, whereas the cadherins serve as important cell-cell receptors for maintenance of epithelial integrity. The leukocyte i…
  • The effects of inhaled interferon gamma in normal human airways. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1677-82.Martin RJ, Boguniewicz M, … Leung DY
  • Recent studies suggest that cytokines such as recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) may play a role in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions associated with infection and inflammation. This study was designed to determine if rIFN-gamma could be delivered effectively in a group of normal human volunteers. The effectiveness of the inhaled delivery system was demonstrated by the recove…
  • Radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage assessment and modulation by a recombinant cytokine. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1671-6.Rosiello RA, Merrill WW, … Amento EP
  • A common side effect of radiotherapy is the development of fibrosis in the irradiated tissue. To study the mechanisms of this fibrogenic response, we developed a model system of whole-lung radiation in the rat and studied the evolution of injury by assessment of the cells and protein recovered by lavage. Once the pattern of injury was known, we attempted to modulate this reaction by administering…
  • alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor, elastase activity, and lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1665-70.O'Connor CM, Gaffney K, … Fitzgerald MX
  • The potential role of neutrophil elastase in exacerbating pulmonary infection and tissue damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) has led to proposals for treatment of lung disease in CF with the elastase inhibitor, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1PI). Reports that alpha 1PI is inactivated in the CF lung suggest that the effectiveness of alpha 1PI therapy depends on the quantity of elastase present an…
  • Differing effects of acute and prolonged alkalosis on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1651-6.Gordon JB, Martinez FR, … Madden JA
  • Animal studies and clinical pediatric practice have shown that acute alkalosis attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). However, increased intracellular pH appears to enhance pulmonary vasoreactivity. We therefore hypothesized that prolonged alkalosis augments HPV. This study compares the effects of acute and prolonged alkalosis on HPV in isolated perfused lungs of 1-month-old lambs (…
  • Endothelin-1 in acute lung injury and the adult respiratory distress syndrome. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1646-50.Langleben D, DeMarchie M, … Stewart DJ
  • Endothelial damage is a hallmark of acute lung injury. Endothelial mediators may increase pulmonary vascular tone and induce pulmonary arterial muscularization, thereby contributing to the pulmonary hypertension seen with acute lung injury. We measured plasma levels and net pulmonary clearance of endothelin-1, a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide and smooth muscle mitogen, in 26 p…
  • Effects of endotoxin in vivo on endothelial and smooth-muscle function in rabbit and rat aorta. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1638-45.Umans JG, Wylam ME, … Schumacker PT
  • In order to determine whether endotoxemia induced generalized defects in vascular contraction and endothelium-dependent relaxation, we studied the effect of in vivo endotoxin administration in Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits on endothelial and arterial smooth-muscle responses of isolated thoracic aorta in vitro. Endotoxin treatment significantly decreased contractile responses t…
  • Elemental composition of human airway surface fluid in healthy and diseased airways. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1633-7.Joris L, Dab I, Quinton PM
  • The fluid that covers the surface of conducting airways (airway surface fluid, ASF) is a critical component of one of the first defense mechanisms of the lung against microbial and other environmental insults. Despite its physiologic importance, ASF is one of the only fluids in the human body whose composition remains poorly defined and understood. Attempts to analyze ASF have been hampered great…
  • Reflex activation of nasal secretion by unilateral inhalation of cold dry air. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1616-22.Philip G, Jankowski R, … Togias AG
  • Exposure to cold dry air induces rhinorrhea and other nasal symptoms in many persons. To evaluate whether this response involves a neurogenic component, we delivered a unilateral cold dry air (UniCDA) nasal challenge to volunteers with previously documented reactivity to cold dry air. We measured their nasal secretory responses bilaterally using small filter paper discs to absorb secretions from …
  • Depressed ventilatory load compensation in sleep apnea. Reversal by nasal CPAP. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1610-5.Greenberg HE, Scharf SM
  • Abnormal inspiratory load compensation may be one factor leading to development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Alternatively, abnormalities in ventilatory load compensation may be a consequence of the manifestations of OSA. This investigation was designed to determine if impairment of awake inspiratory load compensation exists in OSA and to determine if abnormalities in this parameter are reve…
  • Comparison of peripheral chemoreceptor responses in monozygotic and dizygotic twin infants. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1605-9.Thomas DA, Swaminathan S, … Simpson H
  • The peripheral chemoresponses of infant twin pairs were determined using a single-breath hyperoxic stimulus. A total of 43 twin pairs of comparable gestation and birth weight were studied during sleep at a mean (SD) age of 8 wk (1.4) while alternately breathing either air or 16% oxygen in nitrogen. Infants responded to a single breath of 100% oxygen by a reduction in ventilation; the mean (SEM) r…
  • Assessment of hypoxemia in patients with sleep disorders using saturation impairment time. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1592-8.Chesson AL, Anderson WM, … Bairnsfather LE
  • A method of recording cumulative nocturnal oxygen desaturation was utilized to develop a quantitative index of nocturnal hypoxemia (SIT index) to provide reference values and distributional properties for apneic and nonapneic sleep-disordered patients. The SIT indices were compared in patients with varying degrees of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as determined by traditional methods of counting a…
  • Effects of aging on respiratory load compensation and dyspnea sensation. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1586-91.Akiyama Y, Nishimura M, … Kawakami Y
  • To clarify effects of aging on the load compensation response and the sensation of dyspnea, we examined 28 healthy male volunteers for ventilatory and P0.1 responses to hyperoxic progressive hypercapnia with and without inspiratory flow-resistive loading (17 cm H2O/L/s) while the intensity of dyspnea was simultaneously assessed by visual analogue scaling every 15 s. Of the 28 subjects, 14 were 61…
  • Effects of treatment on airway dynamics and respiratory muscle strength in Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1) Bruin PF, de Bruin VM, … Pride NB
  • To investigate how treatment can affect airway dynamics and respiratory muscle strength in Parkinson's disease (PD), we assessed maximum effort inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (MIP and MEP), oscillatory impedance, and maximum expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume curves (MEFV and MIFV) in 10 patients (8 male and 2 female; mean age 51 +/- 5.3 yr, SD) after temporary interruption of ant…
  • Diaphragmatic fatigue after exercise in healthy human subjects. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1571-5.Mador MJ, Magalang UJ, … Kufel TJ
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether diaphragmatic fatigue occurs after high-intensity constant-load whole-body exercise to volitional exhaustion. Ten sedentary subjects with a maximal oxygen uptake of 2.52 +/- 0.47 L/min were studied. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 80% of their maximal working capacity until volitional exhaustion. Minute ventilation during the last mi…
  • Metered-dose inhaler versus nebulized albuterol in mechanically ventilated patients. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1567-70.Manthous CA, Hall JB, … Wood LD
  • In nonintubated patients, beta 2-agonist bronchodilators are equally effective when delivered by metered-dose inhalers (MDI) or nebulizers (NEB). The delivery of these drugs by MDI to intubated, mechanically ventilated patients has become a widespread practice. To compare the efficacy of the two delivery systems and establish optimal dosing, we prospectively randomized 10 mechanically ventilated …
  • Upper and middle lobe bronchoalveolar lavage to diagnose Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1563-6.Yung RC, Weinacker AB, … Golden JA
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) remains the most common lethal opportunistic pulmonary infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although the use of prophylactic inhaled pentamidine has effectively reduced the frequency of primary and recurrent episodes of PCP, the aerosolization of pentamidine may have altered the localization of active PCP, resulting in mo…
  • Quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. [Journal Article]
    Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Dec; 148(6 Pt 1):1552-7.el-Ebiary M, Torres A, … Rodriguez-Roisin R
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and protected specimen brushing (PSB) are the most commonly used methods for diagnosing ventilator-associated (VA) pneumonia although they require bronchoscopy. Endotracheal aspiration (EA) is a simple and less costly technique than PSB or BAL. The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic value of EA quantitative cultures and to compare the results obtai…
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