- Effect of Gender on Unplanned Readmissions After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Nationwide Readmissions Database). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 10
- Women who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with men, but it is unknown whether gender affects early unplanned rehospitalization. We ana...
Women who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with men, but it is unknown whether gender affects early unplanned rehospitalization. We analyzed 832,753 patients who underwent PCI from 2013 to 2014 in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. We compared gender differences in incidences, predictors, causes, and cost of unplanned 30-day readmissions and examined the effect of co-morbidity. A total of 832,753 men and women who survived the index PCI and were not admitted for a planned readmission were included in the analysis. Overall, 9.4% of patients had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Thirty-day readmission rates were higher in women compared with men (11.5% vs 8.4%, p <0.001) even after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.22, p <0.001), although women had significantly lower costs associated with the readmission ($11,927 vs $12,758, p <0.001). The cause of readmission for women and men were similar and the majority of the readmissions were due to noncardiac causes (58% vs 55%), the most common of which were nonspecific chest pain, gastrointestinal disease, and infections. In contrast, for cardiac readmissions, women are more likely to be readmitted for heart failure (29.64% vs 22.34%), whereas men are more likely to be readmitted for coronary artery disease, including angina (33.47% vs 28.54%). In conclusion, gender disparities exist in rates of unplanned rehospitalization after PCI, where more than 1 in 10 women who undergo PCI are readmitted within 30 days. Gender differences were not observed for causes of noncardiac readmissions, whereas important differences were observed for cardiovascular causes.
- Corrigendum to 'Effects of RG7652, a Monoclonal Antibody Against PCSK9, on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C Subfractions, and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients at High Risk of or with Established Coronary Heart Disease (From the Phase 2 EQUATOR Study)' The American Journal of Cardiology 119 (2017) 1576-1583. [Published Erratum]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Feb 12
- Relation of Increased Epicardial Fat After Fontan Palliation to Cardiac Output and Systemic Ventricular Ejection Fraction. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 09
- Epicardial fat produces multiple proinflammatory cytokines and is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Inflammation and resultant endothelial dysfunction may play a role in progressive myoc...
Epicardial fat produces multiple proinflammatory cytokines and is associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Inflammation and resultant endothelial dysfunction may play a role in progressive myocardial dysfunction among adults with single ventricle physiology after Fontan palliation, but the potential impact of increased epicardial fat volume (EFV) has not been studied. This study sought to determine if there is greater EFV in Fontan patients compared with a group of repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients. We retrospectively measured EFV manually on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Fontan patients, ≥15 years, and 1:1 age, sex, and body mass index-matched patients with rTOF. EFV was indexed to body surface area. A random subset of studies was re-measured to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Fontan patients (n = 63, median age 21.6 years, 51% male, mean body mass index 24.2 ± 5.6 kg/m2) had a larger indexed EFV compared with matched rTOF patients (75.3 ± 29.2 ml/m2vs 60.0 ± 19.9 ml/m2, p = 0.001). In Fontan patients, indexed EFV was inversely correlated with ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.26, p = 0.04) and cardiac index (r = -0.33, p = 0.01). Intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the indexed EFV measurements in both groups were excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranges from 0.93 to 0.97). In conclusion, indexed EFV is higher in Fontan patients compared with patients with rTOF and is associated with lower ventricular ejection fraction and cardiac index. Increased EFV could play a role in the failing Fontan circulation, but longitudinal studies are necessary to establish any causative role.
- Computed Tomography Perfusion Aids in the Prognostication of Comatose Postcardiac Arrest Patients. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 09
- Early assessment of the potential for neurologic recovery in comatose cardiac arrest patients (CCAP) has been a challenge despite significant evolution in management and imaging techniques. The purpo...
Early assessment of the potential for neurologic recovery in comatose cardiac arrest patients (CCAP) has been a challenge despite significant evolution in management and imaging techniques. The purpose of study was to determine if the use of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in CCAPs is feasible and if this technique can predict the likelihood that CCAPs will have a devastating outcome at hospital discharge. We prospectively enrolled 10 newly admitted comatose adults who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and were treated with standard therapeutic hypothermia protocols. Patients underwent CTP of the head within 6 hours after finishing therapeutic hypothermia treatment. The imaging findings were compared with the results of a clinical assessment, as well as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at hospital discharge. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for CTP were calculated to predict clinical outcome. Eight patients had an mRS score of ≥5, and 2 patients had an mRS score of ≤2 at hospital discharge. CTP predicted a good clinical outcome in both patients with an mRS score of ≤2. The area under the curve (AUC) for plain computed tomography of the head, computerized tomography angiogram 4-point scale, computerized tomography angiogram 7-point scale, CTP of the whole brain, and CTP of the brainstem for predicting the results of the immediate clinical assessment were 0.76, 0.83, 0.67, 0.83, and 1.0, respectively. The AUCs for predicting outcome at discharge were 0.69, 0.63, 0.56, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.69, respectively. In conclusion, our pilot study showed that CTP is feasible and had a very high AUC for predicting the results of immediate clinical assessment in CCAP.
- Clinical Frailty as an Outcome Predictor After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 11
- Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score and frailty index are calculated routinely as part of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) assessment to determine procedure risk. We aim to evaluat...
Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score and frailty index are calculated routinely as part of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) assessment to determine procedure risk. We aim to evaluate the incremental improvement of STS risk score using frailty status in predicting short- and long-term outcome after TAVI. Study population included 544 consecutive TAVI patients who completed full frailty assessment and STS score calculation before the procedure. Frailty is defined by the presence of any 3 of the following 5 criteria: algorithm-defined grip strength and 15-foot walking tests, body mass index < 20 kg/m2, Katz activity of daily living ≤ 4/6, serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl. Multivariable logistic analysis of 30-day and 1-year mortality was performed using a logistic regression model that comprised the STS risk score model as a single variable. Based on frailty definition, 242 patients were frail and 302 patients were not. STS score was higher in the frail group than in the nonfrail group. Compared with STS risk score alone, frailty status was a significant predictor of 1-year mortality after TAVI procedure (odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0 to 1.1, p = 0.029 vs 2.75, 95% CI 1.55 to 4.87, p <0.001, respectively). Although the c-statistic of the 1-year STS risk prediction model only changed from 0.62 to 0.66 (p = 0.08), the net reclassification improvement increased significantly to 52.8% after adding frailty to the prediction model (95% CI 0.28 to 0.77, p <0.0001). Frailty status is associated with higher mortality in TAVI cohort and incrementally improves the well-validated STS risk prediction model. Frailty assessment should continue to be part of the preprocedural assessment to further improve patient outcomes after TAVI.
- Procedural Outcome and Midterm Survival of Lower Risk Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Patients Treated With the SAPIEN XT or SAPIEN 3 Device. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 11
- Over the years increasing experience and technical device improvements in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have led to treatment of patients with lower surgical risks. Specifically for ...
Over the years increasing experience and technical device improvements in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have led to treatment of patients with lower surgical risks. Specifically for this population, device performance and longer term outcome are of great importance. In this single center, we performed a retrospective analysis of 515 consecutive patients with low- to intermediate surgical risk (STS-PROM ≤8), who underwent transfemoral TAVI between January 2009 and February 2017 with the SXT and ES3 prostheses, and we assessed procedural outcome and procedural and 3-year survival. Mean age (82 years in both groups, p = 0.344) and STS-PROM risk score (3.862 vs 3.992, p = 0.154) did not differ between the ES3 and SXT group. ES3-treated patients showed favorable procedural outcomes, with significantly higher device success (90% vs 73%, p <0.0001) and less paravalvular leakage (7% vs 13%, p <0.0001). Procedural mortality (0.87% vs 1.45%, p = 0.245) and the very low rate of permanent pacemaker implantations (7.4% vs 6.1%, p = 0.234) did not differ significantly. Three-year survival was 87% in the ES3 vs 80% in the SXT group (log-rank p = 0.385). In conclusion, we showed excellent survival and procedural outcomes in patients receiving a transfemoral TAVI with either the SAPIEN 3 or the SAPIEN XT device. The newer SAPIEN 3 even outperforms the SAPIEN XT in terms of less major bleeding complications, substantially higher device success rates, and less paravalvular leakage, with the permanent pacemaker implantation rate being very low in both groups. Survival curves show a nonsignificant trend toward better midterm survival in the ES3 group.
- Comparison of Outcomes and Costs Associated With Aspirin ± Clopidogrel After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 02
- Optimal antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains controversial. This study evaluated the role of dual antiplatelet therapy using aspirin and clopidogrel (DAPT) v...
Optimal antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains controversial. This study evaluated the role of dual antiplatelet therapy using aspirin and clopidogrel (DAPT) versus antiplatelet therapy using aspirin only (ASA) on post-CABG clinical outcomes and costs. In the Department of Veterans Affairs Randomized On/Off Bypass (ROOBY) trial, clopidogrel use after CABG was prospectively collected beginning in year 2 of this study to include 1,525 of the 2,203 original ROOBY patients who received aspirin after CABG. Discretionarily, surgeons after CABG administered either DAPT or ASA treatments. The ROOBY trial's primary 30-day composite (mortality or perioperative morbidity), 1-year composite (all-cause death, repeat revascularization, or nonfatal myocardial infarction), and costs were compared for these 2 strategies. Of the 1,525 subjects, 511 received DAPT and 1,014 received ASA. DAPT subjects, compared with ASA subjects, had lower rates of preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction of ≥45% (78.8% vs 85.7%, p <0.001), on-pump CABG (36.6% vs 57.1%, p = 0.001), and endoscopic vein harvesting (30.0% vs 42.8%, p <0.001). ASA patients were more likely to have earlier aspirin administration and receive 325 versus 81 mg dosages. The 30-day composite outcome rate was significantly lower for DAPT patients compared with ASA patients (3.3% vs 7.1%, p = 0.003), but the 1-year composite outcome was equal between the 2 groups (12.0% vs12.0%, p = 1.0). At 1 year, there were no cost differences between the 2 groups. Propensity analyses did not significantly alter the results. In conclusion, DAPT appeared safe and was associated with fewer 30-day adverse outcomes than aspirin only and with no 1-year outcome or cost differences.
- Relation of Bleeding Events to Mortality in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (a DANAMI-3 Substudy). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 12
- Bleeding events in relation to treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have previously been associated with mortality. In this study, we investigated the incidence and prognos...
Bleeding events in relation to treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have previously been associated with mortality. In this study, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of, and variables associated with serious bleedings within 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients from The Third Danish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (DANAMI-3) (n = 2,217). Hospital charts were read within 30 days postadmission to assess bleeding events using thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. TIMI minor/major bleeding (TMMB) occurred in 59 patients (2.7%). Variables associated with TMMB were female gender (hazard ratio [HR] 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 6.7, p <0.0001), symptom-to-catheterization time >3 hours (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3, p = 0.02), use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7, p = 0.01), and increasing S-creatinine (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2, p = 0.001). Undergoing 2 in-hospital procedures were not associated with increased risk of TMMB. TMMB was strongly associated with 30-day mortality in multivariable analysis (HR 4.8, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.4, p <0.0001) but not with mortality days 31 to 365. When excluding fatal bleedings from the analysis, a TMMB was no longer associated with 30-day mortality. In conclusion, we found that in a contemporary STEMI-population, the incidence of 30-day TMMB was low. A TMMB was strongly associated with 30-day mortality but not with mortality days 31 to 365. If patients survived a serious bleeding, their short- and long-term prognoses were not affected.
- Effect of Optimization of Medical Treatment on Long-Term Survival of Patients With Heart Failure After Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Device Implantation (from the French National EGB Database). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 03
- Prognosis of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is improved by drug optimization according to guidelines; however, little is known regarding such optimization in HFrEF patients with...
Prognosis of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is improved by drug optimization according to guidelines; however, little is known regarding such optimization in HFrEF patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study aimed to describe implementation of this optimized strategy and its impact in patients implanted with an ICD/CRT. Using a 1/97th representative sample of the French national health-care insurance system claims database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted including HFrEF patients implanted with ICD or CRT between January 2009 and December 2014. HFrEF treatments were analyzed before and after ICD/CRT implantation. Heart failure (HF) hospitalization and survival were examined at 1, 3, and 5 years: 378 patients (135 CRT, 243 ICD) with a mean age of 68 ± 13 years were included. Mean follow-up was 23 months [11-42]. At baseline, 36% of patients had no or only 1 HFrEF drug among β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, whereas 26% of patients received an optimal treatment (all 3 classes). At 3 months after ICD/CRT implantation, the prescription rate of HFrEF drugs was higher than baseline but returned to preimplantation levels at the end of follow-up. HF hospitalization rate was higher in the nonoptimized patient group (28% vs 14%, p = 0.001). Optimal HFrEF treatment was associated with better survival (hazard ratio = 0.59 [0.4-0.86], p = 0.006). In conclusion, HFrEF drugs are underprescribed before and after ICD/CRT implantation despite the demonstration that HFrEF drug optimization also reduces death and HF hospitalization in this population.
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- Meta-Analysis of Genotype-Guided Versus Standard Dosing of Vitamin K Antagonists. [Review]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jan 12
- Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic window. Genetic polymorphisms account for high VKA dosage variability. Hence, we performed an updated meta-...
Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic window. Genetic polymorphisms account for high VKA dosage variability. Hence, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing genotype-guided VKA versus standard dosing algorithms. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to October 2017 for all RCTs. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in therapeutic range (TTR). Secondary outcomes were international normalized ratio >4, major and all bleeding events, thromboembolism, adverse and serious adverse events, and all-cause mortality. We calculated the weighted mean difference for the primary outcome and risk ratio (RR) for secondary outcomes using a random-effect model. We included 20 RCTs and analyzed a total of 5,980 adult patients. Our pooled analysis showed greater improvement in TTR for the genotype-guided group in comparison with the standard group (mean difference 3.41%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71 to 6.10, p = 0.01). In addition, there were significant reductions in major and all bleeding events ((RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p = 0.0004) and (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95, p = 0.01), respectively). However, there were no significant differences between the groups for international normalized ratio >4 (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.00, p = 0.06), thromboembolism (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.17, p = 0.25), serious adverse events (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.03, p = 0.08), any adverse events (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.01, p = 0.07), or all-cause mortality (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.66, p = 0.46). In conclusion, genotype-guided VKA dosing can improve the TTR and reduce the risk for bleeding episodes, in comparison with standard dosing algorithms.