- Normal Values and Growth-Related Changes of Left Ventricular Volumes, Stress, and Strain in Healthy Children Measured by 3-Dimensional Echocardiography. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 24
- Normal pediatric values of three-dimensional (3D) left ventricular (LV) volumes and strain are not well established; moreover, no reports exist of the stress-strain relation and the heart rate-correc...
Normal pediatric values of three-dimensional (3D) left ventricular (LV) volumes and strain are not well established; moreover, no reports exist of the stress-strain relation and the heart rate-corrected velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (VCFc) based upon 3D imaging in children. Three-dimensional LV datasets were obtained in pediatric patients (≤18 years of age) with structurally normal hearts. Ventricular volumes and strain components (longitudinal, GLS; circumferential, GCS; and 3D strain, 3DS) were analyzed using a commercial 3D speckle-tracking analysis package. LV mid-wall global average end-systolic fiber stress was calculated from 3D LV volumes. A total of 238 patients were included in the analysis with a median age of 13.1 years (range 0.4 to 17.9 years). Regression equations were derived for 3D volume parameters, permitting body surface area-based Z score calculation. Overall, 3DS values were more negative than GLS and GCS (mean ± SD = -33.8 ± 2.8; -27.8 ± 2.9; and -21.7 ± 3.1, respectively); only GLS varied significantly with age (r = 0.22; p <0.001). Both global average end-systolic fiber stress and 3D VCFc increased significantly with age (p <0.001 for both). Stress-adjusted 3DS and VCFc both varied with age (p <0.001 for both), consistent with increased contractility. In conclusion, 3D echocardiography may be used to calculate LV stress, strain, and volumes in pediatric patients with strong reproducibility. Among strain parameters, significant age-related changes were seen only in GLS. Both indexes of contractility investigated (3DS and VCFc indexed to wall stress) improved with age. Future studies of the 3D echocardiography stress-strain relation may yield new insights into maturational changes in myocardial contractility.
- Meta-analysis Comparing Transcatheter and Surgical Treatments of Paravalvular Leaks. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 20
- Percutaneous paravalvular leak (PVL) closure has emerged as a feasible alternative to redo valve surgery. However, comparative data on percutaneous and surgical treatment of PVL are scarce. We perfor...
Percutaneous paravalvular leak (PVL) closure has emerged as a feasible alternative to redo valve surgery. However, comparative data on percutaneous and surgical treatment of PVL are scarce. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies on percutaneous and surgical treatments of PVL. Of the 2,267 studies screened, 22 eligible studies were analyzed. Primary end points were technical success, 30-day mortality, stroke, and length of stay. Secondary end points were 1-year mortality, readmission for heart failure, reoperation, and symptomatic improvement at follow-up. A total of 2,373 patients were included, of whom 1,511 (63.7%) underwent percutaneous closure. Technical success was higher with surgery (96.7% vs 72.1%, odds ratio [OR] 9.7, p <0.001) but at the cost of higher 30-day mortality (8.6% vs 6.8%, OR 1.90, p <0.001), a trend toward higher stroke (3.3% vs 1.4%, OR 1.94, p = 0.069), and longer hospitalizations. However, surgery was associated with similar 1-year mortality (17.3% vs 17.2%, OR 1.07, p = 0.67), reoperation (9.1% vs 9.9%, OR 0.72, p = 0.1), readmission for heart failure (13.3% vs 26.4%, OR 0.51, p = 0.29), and improvement in New York Heart Association classification (67.4% vs 56%, OR 1.37, p = 0.74), compared with percutaneous closure. A sensitivity analysis including comparative studies only yielded similar results. Surgical treatment of PVL achieves higher technical success rates but is associated with higher early morbidity and mortality compared with percutaneous closure. Nevertheless, mortality rates and clinical efficacy parameters were similar at midterm with both procedures. Further studies are warranted to identify the ideal management approach to patients with symptomatic PVL.
- Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Dual- Versus Mono-Antiplatelet Therapy Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Mar 28
- Current guidelines recommend dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), although some studies suggest mono-antiplatelet therapy is equally efficacious with...
Current guidelines recommend dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), although some studies suggest mono-antiplatelet therapy is equally efficacious with an improved safety profile. We performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing DAPT with mono-antiplatelet therapy after TAVI. Study quality and heterogeneity were assessed using Jadad score, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and Cochran's Q statistics. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed effect models as the primary analysis. Eight studies including 2,439 patients met the inclusion criteria. At 30 days, DAPT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (OR 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34 to 3.18, p = 0.001), major or life-threatening bleeding (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.59, p <0.001), and major vascular complications (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.51 to 3.06, p <0.001). There was no difference in the rate of the combined end point of stroke or transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Outcome data up to 6 months were available in 5 studies; all-cause mortality and stroke were similar between groups, although major or life-threatening bleeding was more frequent with DAPT. In conclusion, in patients undergoing TAVI, DAPT is associated with increased risk at 30 days of all-cause mortality, major or life-threatening bleeding, and major vascular complications without a decrease in ischemic complications; at 6 months, the excess bleeding risk persisted. These data suggest a safety concern with DAPT and justify further investigation of the optimal antiplatelet therapy regimen after TAVI.
- Multimodality Assessment of Right Ventricular Strain in Patients With Acute Pulmonary Embolism. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Mar 28
- Optimal risk stratification is essential in managing patients with an acute pulmonary embolism (PE). There are limited data evaluating the potential additive value of various methods of evaluation of...
Optimal risk stratification is essential in managing patients with an acute pulmonary embolism (PE). There are limited data evaluating the potential additive value of various methods of evaluation of right ventricular (RV) strain in PE. We retrospectively evaluated RV strain by computed tomography (CT), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), electrocardiography (ECG), and troponin levels in consecutive hospitalized patients with acute PE (May 2007 to December 2014). Four-hundred and seventy-seven patients met inclusion criteria. RV strain on ECG (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, confidence interval [CI] 1.1 to 3.3; p = 0.03), CT (OR 2.7, CI 1.5 to 4.8, p <0.001), TTE (OR 2.8, CI 1.5 to 5.4, p <0.001), or a positive troponin (OR 2.7, CI 2.0 to 6.9, p <0.001) were associated with adverse events. In patients with ECG, CT, and TTE data, increased risk was only elevated with RV strain on all 3 parameters (OR 4.6, CI 1.8 to 11.3, p <0.001). In all patients with troponin measurements, risk was only elevated with RV strain on all 3 parameters plus a positive troponin (OR 8.8, CI 2.8 to 28.1, p <0.001) and was similar in intermediate-risk PE (OR 11.1, CI 1.2 to 103.8, p = 0.04). In conclusion, in patients with an acute PE and evaluation of RV strain by ECG, CT, and TTE, risk of adverse events is only elevated when RV strain is present on all 3 modalities. Troponin further aids in discriminating high-risk patients. Multimodality assessment of RV strain is identified as a superior approach to risk assessment.
- Prevalence, Temporal Evolution, and Impact on Survival of Ventricular Conduction Blocks in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiogenic Shock. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 20
- Changes in QRS duration and pattern are regarded to reflect severe ischemia in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and ventricular conduction blocks (VCBs) are recognized high-risk markers in both ACS an...
Changes in QRS duration and pattern are regarded to reflect severe ischemia in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and ventricular conduction blocks (VCBs) are recognized high-risk markers in both ACS and acute heart failure. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence, temporal evolution, association with clinical and angiographic parameters, and impact on mortality of VCBs in ACS-related cardiogenic shock (CS). Data of 199 patients with ACS-related CS from a prospective multinational cohort were evaluated with electrocardiogram data from baseline and day 3. VCBs including left or right bundle branch block, right bundle branch block and hemiblock, isolated hemiblocks, and unspecified intraventricular conduction delay were assessed. Fifty percent of patients had a VCB at baseline; these patients were older, had poorer left ventricular function and had more often left main disease compared with those without VCB. One-year mortality was over 2-fold in patients with VCB compared with those without VCB (68% vs 32%, p<0.001). All types of VCBs at baseline were associated with increased mortality, and the predictive value of a VCB was independent of baseline variables and coronary angiography findings. Interestingly, 37% of the VCBs were transient, i.e., disappeared before day 3. However, 1-year mortality was much higher in these patients (69%) compared to patients with persistent (38%) or no VCB (15%, p<0.001). Indeed, a transient VCB was a strong independent predictor of 1-year mortality. In conclusion, our findings propose that any VCB in baseline electrocardiogram, even if transient, identifies very early patients at particularly high mortality risk in ACS-related CS.
- Challenges in Implementation of Institutional Protocols for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome. [Review]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 17
- The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation ACS (non-STEMI and unstable angina). In recent years, there ...
The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) encompasses ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation ACS (non-STEMI and unstable angina). In recent years, there have been improvements in the rates of death, cardiogenic shock, and recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with ACS, primarily due to the introduction of new pharmacological and interventional therapies, as well as the introduction of and adherence to new treatment guidelines. However, ACS still represents a considerable public health burden. Treatment recommendations for STEMI and non-ST-segment elevation differ and there is wide variation in practice patterns and adherence among and within hospitals especially for the latter diagnosis. Adoption of institutional protocols may help decrease variability and improve quality of care, efficiency, and, ultimately, patient outcomes. This report discusses the process of developing and implementing institutional protocols for patients with ACS, from initial medical contact to discharge and beyond.
- Defining and Measuring a Standard Set of Patient-Relevant Outcomes in Coronary Artery Disease. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 20
- Systematic outcome measurement enables to continuously improve treatment results and stimulates dissemination of best practices. For patients with coronary artery disease, no examples yet exist of st...
Systematic outcome measurement enables to continuously improve treatment results and stimulates dissemination of best practices. For patients with coronary artery disease, no examples yet exist of standard sets of patient-relevant outcome measures that have already been fully implemented at a large scale in clinical care. The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to share the standard set of outcome measures as developed by Meetbaar Beter, and (2) to show how the standard set is presented and published to support improvement of cardiac care. A step-wise approach was followed by an expert panel to construct a standard set of outcome measures. This resulted in a comprehensive set of relevant outcome measures, comprising 4 generic and 11 treatment-specific outcomes. Both short-term and long-term outcomes measures up to 5 years of follow-up were included. Relevant initial conditions were selected to enable case-mix adjustment. The standard set has been implemented in 21 hospitals across the Netherlands. The results and experiences have been used to fine-tune the set in 4 reporting cycles in 2012 to 2016, using an annual maintenance cycle. Currently about 83,000 percutaneous coronary interventions and 30,000 coronary artery bypass graftings are included in the dataset, covering the majority of all percutaneous coronary interventions and coronary artery bypass graftings in the Netherlands. In conclusion, Meetbaar Beter has defined and implemented a comprehensive set of patient-relevant outcome measures for coronary artery disease, and the variation of the results among the centers indicates that there are sufficient opportunities to further improve cardiac care in the Netherlands.
- Accuracy of Phase-Contrast Velocity Mapping Proximal and Distal to Stent Artifact During Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 20
- Little data are available on the accuracy of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity mapping in the vicinity of intravascular metal stents other than nitinol stents. Therefore, we...
Little data are available on the accuracy of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity mapping in the vicinity of intravascular metal stents other than nitinol stents. Therefore, we sought to determine this accuracy using in vitro experiments. An in vitro flow phantom was used with 3 stent types: (1) 316L stainless steel, (2) nitinol self-expanding, and (3) platinum-iridium. Steady and pulsatile flow was delivered with a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible pump (CardioFlow 5000, Shelley Medical, London, Ontario, Canada). Flows were measured using a transit time flow meter (ME13PXN, Transonic, Inc, Ithaca, New York). Mean flows ranged from 0.5 to 7 L/min. For each condition, 5 PC-MRI acquisitions were made: within the stent, immediately adjacent to both edges of the stent artifact, and 1 cm upstream and downstream of the artifact. Mean PC-MRI flows were calculated by segmenting the tube lumen using clinical software (ARGUS, Siemens, Inc, Erlangen, Germany). PC-MRI and flow meter flows were compared by location and stent type using linear regression, Bland-Altman, and intraclass correlation (ICC). PC-MRI flows within the stent artifact were inaccurate for all stents studied, generally underestimating flow meter-measured flow. Agreement between PC-MRI and flow meter-measured flows was excellent for all stent types, both immediately adjacent to and 1 cm away from the edge of the stent artifact. Agreement was highest for the platinum-iridium stent (R = 0.999, ICC = 0.999) and lowest for the nitinol stent (R = 0.993, ICC = 0.987). In conclusion, PC-MRI flows are highly accurate just upstream and downstream of a variety of clinically used stents, supporting its use to directly measure flows in stented vessels.
- Meta-Analysis of Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve Implantation Versus Redo Aortic Valve Surgery for Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 19
- Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation (ViV-TAVI) has evolved as an alternative to redo surgical valve replacement (redo-SAVR) for high-risk patients with aortic bioprosthetic valve (BPV) dysfunct...
Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation (ViV-TAVI) has evolved as an alternative to redo surgical valve replacement (redo-SAVR) for high-risk patients with aortic bioprosthetic valve (BPV) dysfunction. The differences in procedural success and outcomes in a large number of patients who underwent ViV-TAVI compared with redo-SAVR for aortic BPV dysfunction are not known. We conducted a meta-analysis of the previously reported studies to determine outcomes after ViV-TAVI and redo-SAVR. PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies that reported comparative outcomes of patients who underwent either ViV-TAVI or redo-SAVR. Four observational studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 489 patients, 227 of whom underwent ViV-TAVI and 262 underwent redo-SAVR. Thirty-day mortality was similar in 2 groups (5% vs 4%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44 to 2.62) despite the higher operative risk in the ViV-TAVI cohort as evidenced by significantly higher EuroSCORE I or II. There were similar rates of stroke (2% vs 2%; OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.28 to 3.59), myocardial infarction (2% vs 1%; OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.27 to 4.33), and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (7% vs 10%; OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.1.77) between 2 groups but a lower rate of permanent pacemaker implantation in the ViV-TAVI group (9% vs 15%; OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.24 to 0.81). This meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies with modest number of patients suggested that ViV-TAVI had similar 30-day survival compared with redo-SAVR for aortic BPV dysfunction.
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- Risk of Cardioembolic Stroke in Patients With Cancer and Atrial Fibrillation. [Letter]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Apr 18