- Validity of Coronary Artery Disease Consortium Models for Predicting Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease & Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Acute Chest Pain Considered for Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 17
- Although the majority of acute chest pain patients are diagnosed with noncardiac chest pain after noninvasive testing, identifying these low-risk patients before testing is challenging. The objective...
Although the majority of acute chest pain patients are diagnosed with noncardiac chest pain after noninvasive testing, identifying these low-risk patients before testing is challenging. The objective of this study was to validate the coronary artery disease (CAD) consortium models for predicting obstructive CAD and 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in acute chest pain patients considered for coronary computed tomography angiogram, as well as to determine the pretest probability threshold that identifies low-risk patients with <1% MACE. We studied 1,981 patients with no known CAD and negative initial troponin and electrocardiogram. We evaluated CAD consortium models (basic: age, sex, and chest pain type; clinical: basic + diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking; and clinical + coronary calcium score [CAC] models) for prediction of obstructive CAD (≥50% stenosis on coronary CT angiogram) and 30-day MACE (Acute Myocardial Infarction, revascularization, and mortality). The C-statistic for predicting obstructive CAD was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73 to 0.77) for the basic, 0.80 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.80) for the clinical, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.88) for the clinical + CAC models. The C-statistic for predicting 30-day MACE was 0.82 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.87) for the basic, 0.84 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.88) for the clinical, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.91) for the clinical + CAC models. In 47.3% of patients for whom the clinical model predicted ≤5% probability for obstructive CAD, the observed 30-day MACE was 0.53% (95% CI 0.07% to 0.999%); in the 66.9% of patients for whom the clinical + CAC model predicted ≤5% probability, the 30-day MACE was 0.75% (95% CI 0.29% to 1.22%). We propose a chest pain evaluation algorithm based on these models that classify 63.3% of patients as low risk with 0.56% (95% CI 0.15% to 0.97%) 30-day MACE. In conclusion, CAD consortium models have excellent diagnostic and prognostic value for acute chest pain patients and can safely identify a significant proportion of low-risk patients by achieving <1% missed 30-day MACE.
- Previous and New Onset Atrial Fibrillation and Associated Outcomes in Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jun 21
- Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital and long-term mortality. Our objective was to determine w...
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital and long-term mortality. Our objective was to determine whether patients with previous AF and those who presented with or developed AF during their ACS hospitalization (new onset) have an associated increased risk of short- and mid-term cardiovascular events, death, or a composite. We included 7,228 patients from the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events electrocardiogram core laboratory substudy, who presented with an ACS. Associated multivariable-adjusted risk of death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) of death, re-infarction, or stroke in-hospital and at 6 months were estimated. New-onset AF and previous AF patients had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (14.9% and 10.9%, respectively) compared with patients without AF (3.8%; both p < 0.001). New-onset AF and previous AF patients had higher rates of 6-month mortality (22.3% and 21.3%, respectively) compared with patients without AF (7.0%; both p <0.001). After adjustment for clinical prognosticators, including those in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk model, new-onset AF was associated with higher mortality in-hospital (ORadj 1.87, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.70) and at 6 months (ORadj 1.75, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.39) as well as MACE at 6 months (ORadj 1.43, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.81) compared with patients without AF, but were at similar risk compared to those with previous AF (all p > 0.40). In conclusion, the risk of death and MACE after ACS in patients with new-onset and previous AF appears similar and significantly increased compared with patients without AF.
- Comparison of Frequency of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular and Safety Events With Systolic Blood Pressure <120 mm Hg Versus 135-139 mm Hg in a Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial Primary Prevention Subgroup. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 04
- Whether the benefit of intensive blood pressure (BP) control reduces atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk without increasing risks of serious adverse events (SAEs) is unknown. We sough...
Whether the benefit of intensive blood pressure (BP) control reduces atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk without increasing risks of serious adverse events (SAEs) is unknown. We sought to assess differences in incident ASCVD and SAE with intensive BP control across the spectrum of 10-year ASCVD risk in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). SPRINT randomized 9,361 participants who were ≥50 years old and ≥1 CVD risk factor to standard or intensive BP control (<120 or 130 to 139 mm Hg). We excluded adults with clinical ASCVD or age ≥80. We included 6,875 participants. We compared hazard ratios (HR) and risk differences (RD) of incident ASCVD events or SAEs in all and across quartiles of baseline risk. Median predicted ASCVD risk was 15.9%. Intensive BP control significantly reduced ASCVD events (HR 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58, 0.97, p = 0.03; RD -0.94; -1.8, -0.1; p = 0.03). There was no difference in effect across quartiles of ASCVD risk. There was a non-significant increase in SAE with intensive BP control (HR 1.08, 1.00, 1.17 p = 0.06; RD 2.1, -0.1, 4.4, p = 0.03), and no difference in this effect across quartiles of risk. In SPRINT participants without baseline clinical ASCVD, the benefit of intensive BP control for primary prevention of ASCVD may extend to lower risk participants without an increase in SAE. In conclusion, lower risk adults with stage 1 hypertension meeting SPRINT eligibility may benefit from initiation of antihypertensives.
- Frequency of Ventricular Arrhythmias and Other Rhythm Abnormalities in Children and Young Adults With the Marfan Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 17
- Patients with the Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at risk for sudden death. The contribution of arrhythmias is unclear. This study examines the prevalence of arrhythmias in children with the MFS and their ...
Patients with the Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at risk for sudden death. The contribution of arrhythmias is unclear. This study examines the prevalence of arrhythmias in children with the MFS and their relation to clinical and/or echocardiographic factors. Data from the Pediatric Heart Network randomized trial of atenolol versus losartan in MFS were analyzed (6 months to 25 years old, aortic root diameter z-score > 3.0, no previous aortic surgery and/or dissection). Baseline 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring was performed. Significant ventricular ectopy (VE) and supraventricular ectopy (SVE) were defined as ≥10 VE or SVE/hour, or the presence of high-grade ectopy. Three-year composite clinical outcome of death, aortic dissection, or aortic root replacement was analyzed. There were 274 analyzable monitors on unique patients from 11 centers. Twenty subjects (7%) had significant VE, 13 (5%) significant SVE; of these, 2 (1%) had both. None had sustained ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia. VE was independently associated with increasing number of major Ghent criteria (odds ratio [OR] = 2.13/each additional criterion, p = 0.03) and greater left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-score (OR = 1.47/each 1 unit increase in z-score, p = 0.01). SVE was independently associated with greater aortic sinotubular junction diameter z-score (OR = 1.56/each 1 unit increase in z-score, p = 0.03). The composite clinical outcome (14 events) was not related to VE or SVE (p ≥ 0.3), but was independently related to heart rate variability (higher triangular index). In conclusion, in this cohort, VE and SVE were rare. VE was related to larger BSA-adjusted left ventricular size. Routine ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring may be useful for risk stratification in select MFS patients.
- Comparison of Complications of Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Arrhythmias in Adults With Versus Without Structural Heart Disease. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 19
- Catheter ablation (CA) is an effective treatment for ventricular arrhythmias (VA), with a potential for complications. The presence of structural heart disease (SHD) is associated with a higher compl...
Catheter ablation (CA) is an effective treatment for ventricular arrhythmias (VA), with a potential for complications. The presence of structural heart disease (SHD) is associated with a higher complication rate although there is no data comparing CA of VA between patients with SHD and those without. We aimed to compare trends, morbidity, and mortality associated with real world practice of CA for VA (ventricular tachycardia and premature ventricular contraction) based on the presence of SHD. Using weighted sampling in the National Inpatient Sample database, we collected and compared characteristics and outcomes of patients with or without SHD that underwent CA of VA. Among 34,907 patients that underwent CA for VA (1999-2013), 18,014 (51.6%) had SHD. Major and all complications occurred among 1,135/18,014 (6.3%) and 2139/18,014 (11.9%) patients with SHD respectively compared with 355/16,893 (2.1%) and 739/16,893 (4.4%) for patients without SHD, p < 0.001 for both comparisons. Furthermore, 452/18,014 (2.51%) with SHD died versus 20/16,893 (0.12%) without SHD, p < 0.001. Heart failure was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.09 for major complications (95%CI: 1.53-6.27, p = 0.002) for patients with SHD while coronary artery disease OR for major complications was 2.47 (95%CI: 1.44-4.23, p = 0.001) for patients without SHD. There was a significant increase in major complications over the 15-year study period in patients with SHD, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the presence of SHD during CA for VA increased the complication rate of major and any complications by approximately threefold for both and the hospital mortality by >20-fold compared with patients without SHD.
- Bleeding Events After ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients Randomized to an All-comer Clinical Trial Compared With Unselected Patients. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 19
- Most studies reporting bleedings in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are reports from clinical trials, which may be unrepresentative of incidences in real-life. In thi...
Most studies reporting bleedings in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are reports from clinical trials, which may be unrepresentative of incidences in real-life. In this study, we investigated 1-year bleeding and mortality incidences in an unselected STEMI population, and compared participants with nonparticipants of a randomized all-comer clinical trial (The Third DANish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with STEMI (DANAMI-3)). Hospital charts were read and bleedings classified according to thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria in 2,490 consecutive STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention in a single, large, and tertiary heart center. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction minor and/or major bleeding (TMMB) occurred in 4.4% day 0 to 30 and 2.1% day 31 to 365. DANAMI-3 nonparticipants (n = 887) had significantly higher 30-day bleeding rates than DANAMI-3-participants (n = 1,603) (7.2% vs 2.9%, p <0.0001), but not thereafter (p = 0.8). DANAMI-3 nonparticipation was significantly associated with 30-day TMMB (hazard ratio, 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 2.8, p = 0.007), but this did not persist after adjusting for resuscitated cardiac arrest, Killip-class>2 and anemia. Patients with cardiac arrest, Killip-class>2, and anemia accounted for 70.0% of 30-day TMMBs, and the majority of these patients were DANAMI-3 nonparticipants. TMMB day 0 to 30 was associated with increased 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.9 to 5.2, p <0.0001) but not thereafter (p = 0.9). In conclusion, we found that clinical trial (DANAMI-3) nonparticipants had significantly more TMMBs within 30 days than participants. Patients with resuscitated cardiac arrest, anemia, and Killip-class>2 were accountable for a high rate of TMMBs. Bleeding incidences from clinical trials cannot be translated to an unselected STEMI population.
- Defining the Role of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Cardiovascular Disease. [Review]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 19
- Echocardiography is the foundation for diagnostic cardiac testing, allowing for direct identification and management of various conditions. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has emerged as an invaluab...
Echocardiography is the foundation for diagnostic cardiac testing, allowing for direct identification and management of various conditions. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has emerged as an invaluable tool for bedside diagnosis and management. The objective of this review is to address the current use and clinical applicability of POCUS to identify, triage, and manage a wide spectrum of cardiac conditions. POCUS can change diagnosis and management decisions of various cardiovascular conditions in a range of settings. In the outpatient setting, it is used to risk stratify and diagnose a variety of medical conditions. In the emergency department (ED) and critical care settings, it is used to guide triage and critical care interventions. Furthermore, the skills needed to perform POCUS can be taught to noncardiologists in a way that is retained and allows identification of normal and grossly abnormal cardiac findings. Various curricula have been developed that teach residents and advanced learners how to appropriately employ point-of-care ultrasound. In conclusion, POCUS can be a useful adjunct to the physical exam, particularly in critical care applications.
- Prognostic Implications of Point-of-Care and Serial B-type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 19
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is a heterogenous disease with a variable clinical course. Predictors of long-term adverse cardiovascular events are needed. Our objectives were to determine the long...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is a heterogenous disease with a variable clinical course. Predictors of long-term adverse cardiovascular events are needed. Our objectives were to determine the long-term prognostic value of a single and serial point of care (POC) B-type natriuretic-peptide (BNP) measurements in HC. One hundred and eleven ambulatory patients with HC (mean age 53 ± 16 years) were prospectively recruited over a 2-year period (2004 to 2006). A clinical assessment, comprehensive echocardiogram, and a POC BNP level was obtained at baseline and at a 1- to 2-year follow-up. They were subsequently followed for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The median baseline BNP concentration was 114 pg/ml (range 5.3 to 1550 pg/ml). During a mean follow-up of 6.2 ± 3.4 years, 42 patients (38%) had a MACE. In a multivariable Cox model including clinical and echocardiographic predictors, logBNP (HR 4.30; 95% confidence interval 1.97 to 9.37, p <0.001) and left ventricualr ejection fraction (LVEF) (HR 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 0.99, p = 0.011) remained significant predictors of MACE. Nested models demonstrated incremental prognostic value of logBNP for MACE (chi-square increased from 4.3 to 22.8, p <0.01) over clinical and echocardiographic factors. Patients with persistently elevated BNP (>100 pg/ml) at baseline and at the second visit were at a higher risk of developing MACE during follow-up (5-year MACE-free survival of 0.91 (SE 0.06) vs 0.45 (SE 0.09), p <0.001). In conclusion, POC BNP levels in patients with HC were predictive of long-term MACE and had independent and incremental value. Patients with persistently elevated BNP levels were at a higher risk of MACE.
- Varying Effects of Body Mass Index and Mortality in Different Risk Groups. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 04
- It is unclear why high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a lower risk of death in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that the impact of higher BMI varies by the patien...
It is unclear why high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a lower risk of death in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that the impact of higher BMI varies by the patient's baseline risk of death. We analyzed data from 14 prospective studies conducted by us in 50 countries of 170,470 patients: 22.8% without CVD, 29.4% with stable CVD and 47.8% with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Compared with overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 20 to 24.9 kg/m2), and underweight (BMI < 20 kg/m2) were associated with higher mortality in all cohorts. Compared with overweight, the risk of death among those with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) varied depending on the population studied: HR (95% confidence interval) in those without CVD, with stable CVD, and with ACS were 1.20 (1.01 to 1.45; p = 0.04), 1.08 (1.02 to 1.15; p = 0.01), and 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10; p = 0.72), respectively. The BMI associated with lowest mortality increased as cohort risk increased (no-CVD 27.2 kg/m2, stable CVD 28.1 kg/m2, and ACS 30.9 kg/m2; p <0.001). Within each cohort, the optimal BMI value was higher in the high-risk subgroup. In the ACS cohort, low-risk patients had an optimal BMI value of 29.1 kg/m2 while in the high-risk group higher BMI was associated with lower risk of death (interaction-p <0.001). In conclusion, between and within cohorts of people without CVD, stable CVD, and ACS, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of death in higher risk groups. The benefits of increased body fat (i.e., increased caloric reserve) may counteract the hazards in high-risk groups, suggesting an alternative explanation of the obesity paradox.
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- Evolution of Length of Stay After Surgical and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Over 8 Years in 1,849 Patients >75 Years of Age and Comparison Between Transfemoral and Transsubclavian Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Jul 20
- Minimized length of hospitalization (LoS) and lower risk of hospitalization-related complications are key requirements in the treatment of aortic valve disease, mainly in the elderly candidates. Our ...
Minimized length of hospitalization (LoS) and lower risk of hospitalization-related complications are key requirements in the treatment of aortic valve disease, mainly in the elderly candidates. Our objective was to evaluate evolution of LoS after surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and its predictors. We enrolled 1,849 elderly (aged >75) patients receiving SAVR or TAVI from 2009 to 2016. In the surgical cohort (n = 1,006) the mean LoS slightly decreased from 13.81 ± 9.27 days (2009) to 10.96 ± 3.77 (2016); in the TAVI cohort (n = 843), LoS passed from 13.33 ± 9.17 (2009) to 6.21 ± 4.30 days (2016). All-cause mortality at 1 month was 3.77 % (SAVR) versus 4.7% (TAVI) (p >0.05). Among Transfemoral TAVI (TF, n = 681), and Transsubclavian TAVI (TS, n = 62), average LoS was comparable (7.38 days ± 7.11 vs 7.31 ± 4.32; median 6.0 and 6.0 days, p = 0.07). Procedural success was reached in 93% (TF) and in 85.4% (TS) (p = 0.20). There were no meaningful differences among TF and TS in terms of VARC-2 postprocedural morbidity, except for the rate of vascular access-related complications; these occurred in 8.8% of cases in the TF group versus 1.6% in the TS group (p = 0.05). In conclusion the present analysis showed a faster improvement in terms of LoS for TAVI compared with SAVR over 8 years of activity. The 2 strategies presented comparable all-causes mortality at 30 days. LoS, rates of procedural success and complications were comparable among TF and TS TAVI; nonetheless, vascular access-related complications were more frequent in the TF cohort. This suggests the validity of the TS route as an alternative to the TF approach.