- Impact of Dialysis on the Prognosis of Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 18
- End-stage renal disease (ESRD) affects approximately 2% to 4% of patients with severe aortic stenosis. It is because these patients have been excluded from clinical trials, the impact of transcathete...
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) affects approximately 2% to 4% of patients with severe aortic stenosis. It is because these patients have been excluded from clinical trials, the impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in this patient group has not been thoroughly investigated. Between April 2008 and March 2015, 2,000 patients (dialysis group, n = 56 [2.8%]) were consecutively enrolled when diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis and eligible to undergo TAVI. Procedural and longer-term outcomes were analyzed and adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics. Patients on dialysis had a higher periprocedural mortality (10.7% vs 1.7%; adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 5.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91 to 16.67; p = 0.002) and a lower Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-II (VARC) defined device success (adjOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.79; p = 0.012). At 30 days, there was an increased rate of all-cause mortality (21.4 vs 4.8%; adjOR 4.90, 95% CI 1.96 to 12.26; p = 0.001), cardiovascular (adjOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.43 to 9.41; p = 0.007) and noncardiovascular mortality (adjOR 6.28, 95% CI 1.36 to 9.41; p = 0.019), myocardial infarction (adjOR 9.39, 95% CI 1.84 to 48.03; p = 0.007), bleeding (adjOR 2.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.83; p = 0.036) as well as the VARC-II defined early safety combined end point (adjOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.28 to 6.90; p = 0.012) associated with dialysis. Dialysis was associated with poor survival at one (57.1% vs 84.2%) and 3 years (26.8% vs 66.9%) with or without the consideration of the first 72 hours (p <0.001; adjusted p <0.001). Although, in the multivariable regression analysis, reduced ejection fraction, peripheral arterial disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH), frailty and dialysis were associated with 1-year mortality, only PH (>60 mm Hg) remained significant in an analysis restricted to the dialysis patients (adjusted hazard ratio 2.68; 95% CI 1.18 to 5.88; p = 0.018). PH had a sensitivity of 45.8%, a specificity of 81.3%, and a positive predictive value of 64.7%. In conclusion, dialysis is an independent predictor of mortality in patients who underwent TAVI. Long-term mortality in dialysis patients appears to be largely determined by the kidney disease and/or dialysis itself whereas VARC-II defined complications are largely unaffected. An increased short-term mortality still calls for (pre-) procedural optimization.
- Acute Myocardial Infarction Outcomes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 19
- One of the major causes of mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is acute myocardial infarction. Whether in-hospital outcomes and management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (S...
One of the major causes of mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is acute myocardial infarction. Whether in-hospital outcomes and management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) are different in SLE patients compared with those without SLE from large, recent dataset is unclear. We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Database from 2005 to 2014 and identified STEMI and NSTEMI admissions with and without SLE. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were revascularization strategy (percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass surgery, or thrombolytics), medical therapy rates (no reperfusion), and major adverse clinical events. A propensity-matched cohort was created to compare these outcomes. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated from the propensity-matched cohort. A total of 321,048 STEMI admissions, of which 1,001 (0.31%) and 572,971 NSTEMI admissions, of which 2,134 (0.37%) were SLE, were identified. In those with STEMI, 882 SLE and non-SLE admissions were propensity-matched. In-hospital mortality (9.1% vs 11.8%, OR 0.75, p = 0.07), revascularization strategy, medical therapy rates, and major adverse events were similar. Similarly, in those with NSTEMI, 1,770 SLE and 1,775 non-SLE were matched. In-hospital mortality (4.1% vs 4.50%, OR 0.90, p = 0.51), coronary artery bypass surgery, medical therapy rates, and major adverse events were mostly similar but the rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was higher in SLE (32.9% vs 29.6%, OR 1.16, p = 0.04). For both STEMI and NSTEMI, hospital cost and length of stay were similar between SLE and non-SLE cohorts. From a large administrative database in the United States, revascularization strategies and in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome were mostly similar between SLE and non-SLE.
- Relation of Elevated Resting Heart Rate in Mid-Life to Cognitive Decline Over 20 Years (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] Study). [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 21
- Resting heart rate (RHR) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We determined whether RHR, measured in mid-life, is also associated with cognitive decline. We studied 13,...
Resting heart rate (RHR) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We determined whether RHR, measured in mid-life, is also associated with cognitive decline. We studied 13,720 middle-aged white and black ARIC participants without a history of stroke or atrial fibrillation. RHR was obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram at the baseline visit (1990 to 1992) and categorized into groups as <60 (reference), 60 to 69, 70 to 79 and ≥80 beats/min. Cognitive scores were obtained at baseline and at up to 2 additional visits (1996 to 1998 and 2011 to 2013). The primary outcome was a global composite cognitive score (Z-score) derived from 3 tests: delayed word recall, digit symbol substitution, and word fluency. The associations of RHR with cognitive decline and incident dementia were examined using linear mixed-effects and Cox hazard models, respectively, adjusting for sociodemographics, CVD risk factors, and AV-nodal blockade use. Multiple imputation methods were used to account for attrition over follow-up. Participants had mean ± SD age of 58 ± 6 years; 56% were women, 24% black. Average RHR was 66 ± 10 beats/min. Over a mean follow-up of 20 years, those with RHR ≥80 beats/min had greater global cognitive decline (average adjusted Z-score difference -0.12 [95% confidence interval -0.21, -0.03]) and increased risk for incident dementia (hazard ratio 1.28 (1.04, 1.57), compared with those with RHR <60 beats/min. In conclusion, elevated RHR is independently associated with greater cognitive decline and incident dementia over 20 years. Further studies are needed to determine whether the associations are causal or secondary to another underlying process, and whether modification of RHR can affect cognitive decline.
- Relation of Ratio of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction to Left Ventricular End-Diastolic Pressure to Long-Term Prognosis After ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 23
- Risk stratification of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is suboptimal. We assessed the prognostic value of the left ventricular ejection fraction to left ventric...
Risk stratification of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is suboptimal. We assessed the prognostic value of the left ventricular ejection fraction to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEF/LVEDP) ratio in patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The study included 1,283 patients with STEMI. LVEF and LVEDP were measured at the time of PPCI. The primary outcome was 8-year cardiac mortality. Patients were divided into 3 groups: a group with a LVEF/LVEDP ratio within the first tertile (LVEF/LVEDP ratio <2; n = 437 patients), a group with a LVEF/LVEDP ratio within the second tertile (LVEF/LVEDP ratio 2 to 3; n = 422 patients), and a group with a LVEF/LVEDP ratio within third tertile (LVEF/LVEDP ratio >3; n = 424 patients). There were 109 cardiac deaths during the follow-up: 55 (17.1%), 36 (10.9%), and 18 (6.5%) deaths occurring in patients of the first, second, and third LVEF/LVEDP ratio tertiles, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.97, p = 0.022 for 1 unit increment in the LVEF/LVEDP ratio). LVEF/LVEDP ratio (p = 0.035) but not LVEF (p = 0.290) or LVEDP (p = 0.145) alone improved the risk prediction of the models for cardiac mortality (p values show the difference in C-statistics between the models without and with LVEF/LVEDP ratio, LVEF or LVEDP). In conclusion, in patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI, a lower LVEF/LVEDP ratio was independently associated with increased risk of cardiac mortality up to 8 years after PPCI. The LVEF/LVEDP ratio, but not LVEF or LVEDP alone improved predictivity of multivariable models with respect to long-term cardiac mortality.
- Subclinical Burden of Coronary Artery Calcium in Patients With Coarctation of the Aorta. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 21
- Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is often performed in adults with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) for anatomic assessment. As this population ages, assessment of atherosclerotic cardiova...
Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is often performed in adults with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) for anatomic assessment. As this population ages, assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease burden is important. Thus, quantitative and qualitative coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were assessed for patients with CoA ≥16 years of age, who were seen at a referral center. CoA patients had either coronary CT angiography or chest CT with interpretable coronary information performed for clinical indications (follow-up, preoperative, or for symptoms) from 2004 to 2017. Qualitative CAC was determined based on low-dose CT and lung cancer screening protocols. Quantitative CAC scores were compared with an age- and gender-matched control cohort of patients chosen from an emergency department database of patients who received coronary CT angiography for chest pain evaluation. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease 10-year predicted risk scores were calculated for both cohorts. Out of 131 patients with CoA (mean age 46.1 ± 15.3 years), 22 patients (17%) had multivessel atherosclerotic disease on qualitative assessment. In the subgroup of patients ≥40 years, those with CoA were more likely to have a quantitative CAC score ≥400 compared with those without CoA (14% vs 4%, p = 0.02). Median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score was 8% (interquartile range 2% to 12%) for CoA patients ≥40 years, and 5% (interquartile range 2% to 9%) for patient without CoA ≥40 years. In conclusion, we determined that CoA patients have subclinical atherosclerosis identifiable on CT in high rates when compared with patients without CoA. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease should be assessed in these patients for prevention and treatment.
- Usefulness of a Computerized Reminder System to Improve Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval and Complications. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 19
- Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) are associated with complications which may be due to delayed retrieval. Initiation of an automated reminder system may improve retrieval rates and reduce complicati...
Inferior vena cava filters (IVCF) are associated with complications which may be due to delayed retrieval. Initiation of an automated reminder system may improve retrieval rates and reduce complications. A computerized reminder system, which provides interactive email reminders after implantation while collecting IVCF use data, was implemented. IVCF retrieval was compared before ("reminder not provided" group) and after ("reminder provided" group) implementation. Data regarding implantation, retrieval, and complications were collected. The primary efficacy outcome was retrieval rate, and the primary safety outcome was indwelling complication rate. Secondary outcomes were time to retrieval and a composite adverse outcome defined as IVCF thrombosis, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism, and death. A total of 1,070 IVCF insertions were included, 715 in the "reminder not provided" group and 355 in the "reminder provided" group. Patient age (61 vs 64 years, p = 0.95) and gender (42% vs 40% female, p = 0.55) were similar in the "reminder not provided" and "reminder provided" groups, respectively. In the "reminder provided" group, the retrieval rate was higher (148/297 [49.8%] vs 223/715 [31.2%], p = 0.0001), the indwelling complication rate was lower (30/319 [9.4%] vs 115/715 [16.1%], p = 0.005), and the time to retrieval was shorter (112 days vs 146 days, p = 0.02). The composite adverse outcome occurred less frequently in the "reminder provided" group: (85/355 [23.9%] vs 297/715 [41.5%], p = 0.0001). The system was associated with increased odds of IVCF retrieval (odds ratio 2.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.82 to 3.59; p <0.0001) and reduced odds of the composite adverse outcome (odds ratio 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 0.80; p <0.0001). In conclusion, implementing a computerized email reminder system was associated with higher IVCF retrieval rates, fewer indwelling complications, and shorter dwell times.
- Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cardiovascular Function in Obese Youth. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 18
- The increasing prevalence of overweight or obese children and adolescents is a significant global health concern. Although the effect of obesity on cardiovascular function has been investigated, litt...
The increasing prevalence of overweight or obese children and adolescents is a significant global health concern. Although the effect of obesity on cardiovascular function has been investigated, little is known on the impact of associated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese youth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of OSA on cardiovascular functional parameters in obese youth. This is a prospective single-center observational cross-sectional study. Forty-four obese patients and 44 age- and gender-matched control subjects were included. All patients underwent polysomnography and cardiovascular assessment including functional echocardiography and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Obese patients had higher left ventricular (LV) mass/height2.7, preserved LV systolic parameters, differences in LV diastolic parameters, and increased PWV and systolic blood pressure at rest compared with control group. In obese youth, 14 of 44 (32%) had OSA. There was no correlation between obesity and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). LV mass/height2.7 significantly correlated with body mass index z-score (r = 0.648, p <0.001) whereas PWV correlated with AHI (r = 0.352, p = 0.038). In obese patients, body mass index z-score was an independent predictor for LV mass/height2.7 (r = 0.61, p <0.001) and AHI was an independent predictor for higher PWV (r = 0.352, p = 0.038). In conclusion, both obesity and OSA influence cardiovascular performance in obese youth. Although obesity is associated with increased LV mass and reduced LV diastolic function, OSA is associated with changes in arterial stiffness.
- Usefulness of Low-Dose Statin Plus Ezetimibe and/or Nutraceuticals in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Intolerant to High-Dose Statin Treatment. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 19
- High-dose statin (HDS) therapy is recommended to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); however, some patients are unable to tolerate the associated side effects. Nutraceuticals have sho...
High-dose statin (HDS) therapy is recommended to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); however, some patients are unable to tolerate the associated side effects. Nutraceuticals have shown efficacy in lowering LDL-C. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of low-dose statin (LDS) plus ezetimibe (EZE) or LDS plus nutraceutical (Armolipid Plus [ALP] containing red yeast rice, policosanol, and berberine) can lead to a higher proportion of high-risk patients achieving target LDL-C. A secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of triple combination LDS + EZE + ALP in resistant patients (LDL-C >70 mg/dl). A randomized, prospective, parallel-group, single-blind study was conducted in patients with coronary artery disease (n = 100) who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 12 months, were HDS-intolerant, and were not at LDL-C target (<70 mg/dl) with LDS alone. Patients received either LDS + EZE or LDS + ALP. Of the 100 patients, 33 patients (66%) treated with LDS + EZE and 31 patients (62%) treated with LDS + ALP achieved target LDL-C after 3 months, which was maintained at 6 months. Patients who did not achieve the therapeutic goal received a triple combination of LDS + EZE + ALP for a further 3 months. At 6 months, 28 of 36 patients (78%) achieved LDL-C target. Overall, 92% of patients enrolled in this study were at target LDL-C at 6 months. No patients in any group experienced major side effects. In conclusion, in HDS-intolerant coronary artery disease patients, the combination of LDS plus EZE and/or ALP represents a valuable therapeutic option allowing most patients to reach target LDL-C within 3 to 6 months.
- Meta-analysis Comparing Culprit Vessel Only Versus Multivessel Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 26
- Cardiogenic shock (CS) after a myocardial infarction continues to be associated with high mortality. Whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of noninfarct coronary arteries (multivessel inte...
Cardiogenic shock (CS) after a myocardial infarction continues to be associated with high mortality. Whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of noninfarct coronary arteries (multivessel intervention [MVI]) improves outcomes in CS after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains controversial. MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Scopus databases were searched for original studies comparing MVI with culprit-vessel intervention (CVI) in AMI patients with multivessel disease and CS. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and pooled using a random effects model. Thirteen studies, consisting of 7,906 patients (nMVI = 1,937; nCVI = 5,969), were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the MVI and CVI groups did not differ significantly in the risk of short-term mortality (RR: 1.06 [0.91, 1.23]; p = 0.45; I2 = 75.82%), long-term mortality (RR: 0.93 [0.78, 1.11]; p = 0.37; I2 = 67.92%), reinfarction (RR: 1.16 [0.75, 1.79]; p = 0.50; I2 = 0%), revascularization (RR: 0.84 [0.48, 1.47]; p = 0.54; I2 = 83.01%), bleeding (RR: 1.15 [0.96, 1.38]; p = 0.09, I2 = 0%), or stroke (RR: 1.29 [0.86, 1.94]; p = 0.80, I2 = 0%). However, significantly increased risk of renal failure was seen in the MVI group (RR: 1.35 [1.10, 1.66]; p = 0.004; I2 = 0%). On subgroup analysis, it was seen that results from retrospective studies showed higher short-term mortality in the MVI group in comparison with prospective studies (p = 0.003). The certainty in estimates is low due to the largely observational nature of the evidence. In conclusion, MVI provides no additional reduction in short- or long-term mortality in AMI patients with multivessel disease and CS. Additionally, the risk of renal failure may be higher with the use of MVI.
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- Questionable Study Inclusion in Meta-Analysis. [Letter]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2018 Oct 25