- Heterozygous Mutations in OAS1 Cause Infantile-Onset Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis with Hypogammaglobulinemia. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 12
- Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by accumulation of a surfactant-like substance in alveolar spaces and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Genetic PAP (GPAP) is caused by mutations in...
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is characterized by accumulation of a surfactant-like substance in alveolar spaces and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Genetic PAP (GPAP) is caused by mutations in genes encoding surfactant proteins or genes encoding a surfactant phospholipid transporter in alveolar type II epithelial cells. GPAP is also caused by mutations in genes whose products are implicated in surfactant catabolism in alveolar macrophages (AMs). We performed whole-exome sequence analysis in a family affected by infantile-onset PAP with hypogammaglobulinemia without causative mutations in genes associated with PAP: SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, CSF2RA, CSF2RB, and GATA2. We identified a heterozygous missense variation in OAS1, encoding 2,'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) in three affected siblings, but not in unaffected family members. Deep sequence analysis with next-generation sequencing indicated 3.81% mosaicism of this variant in DNA from their mother's peripheral blood leukocytes, suggesting that PAP observed in this family could be inherited as an autosomal-dominant trait from the mother. We identified two additional de novo heterozygous missense variations of OAS1 in two unrelated simplex individuals also manifesting infantile-onset PAP with hypogammaglobulinemia. PAP in the two simplex individuals resolved after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, indicating that OAS1 dysfunction is associated with impaired surfactant catabolism due to the defects in AMs.
- A Large-Scale Multi-ancestry Genome-wide Study Accounting for Smoking Behavior Identifies Multiple Significant Loci for Blood Pressure. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 13
- Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior ...
Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10-8). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).
- Comprehensive Analysis of Constraint on the Spatial Distribution of Missense Variants in Human Protein Structures. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 08
- The spatial distribution of genetic variation within proteins is shaped by evolutionary constraint and provides insight into the functional importance of protein regions and the potential pathogenici...
The spatial distribution of genetic variation within proteins is shaped by evolutionary constraint and provides insight into the functional importance of protein regions and the potential pathogenicity of protein alterations. Here, we comprehensively evaluate the 3D spatial patterns of human germline and somatic variation in 6,604 experimentally derived protein structures and 33,144 computationally derived homology models covering 77% of all human proteins. Using a systematic approach, we quantify differences in the spatial distributions of neutral germline variants, disease-causing germline variants, and recurrent somatic variants. Neutral missense variants exhibit a general trend toward spatial dispersion, which is driven by constraint on core residues. In contrast, germline disease-causing variants are generally clustered in protein structures and form clusters more frequently than recurrent somatic variants identified from tumor sequencing. In total, we identify 215 proteins with significant spatial constraints on the distribution of disease-causing missense variants in experimentally derived protein structures, only 65 (30%) of which have been previously reported. This analysis identifies many clusters not detectable from sequence information alone; only 12% of proteins with significant clustering in 3D were identified from similar analyses of linear protein sequence. Furthermore, spatial analyses of mutations in homology-based structural models are highly correlated with those from experimentally derived structures, supporting the use of computationally derived models. Our approach highlights significant differences in the spatial constraints on different classes of mutations in protein structure and identifies regions of potential function within individual proteins.
- Loss-of-Function Mutations in UNC45A Cause a Syndrome Associating Cholestasis, Diarrhea, Impaired Hearing, and Bone Fragility. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 01
- Despite the rapid discovery of genes for rare genetic disorders, we continue to encounter individuals presenting with syndromic manifestations. Here, we have studied four affected people in three fam...
Despite the rapid discovery of genes for rare genetic disorders, we continue to encounter individuals presenting with syndromic manifestations. Here, we have studied four affected people in three families presenting with cholestasis, congenital diarrhea, impaired hearing, and bone fragility. Whole-exome sequencing of all affected individuals and their parents identified biallelic mutations in Unc-45 Myosin Chaperone A (UNC45A) as a likely driver for this disorder. Subsequent in vitro and in vivo functional studies of the candidate gene indicated a loss-of-function paradigm, wherein mutations attenuated or abolished protein activity with concomitant defects in gut development and function.
- Mutations in the BAF-Complex Subunit DPF2 Are Associated with Coffin-Siris Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 05
- Variants affecting the function of different subunits of the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex lead to various neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Coffin-Siris syndrome. Furthermore, variants in ...
Variants affecting the function of different subunits of the BAF chromatin-remodelling complex lead to various neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Coffin-Siris syndrome. Furthermore, variants in proteins containing PHD fingers, motifs recognizing specific histone tail modifications, have been associated with several neurological and developmental-delay disorders. Here, we report eight heterozygous de novo variants (one frameshift, two splice site, and five missense) in the gene encoding the BAF complex subunit double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2). Affected individuals share common clinical features described in individuals with Coffin-Siris syndrome, including coarse facial features, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech impairment, and hypoplasia of fingernails and toenails. All variants occur within the highly conserved PHD1 and PHD2 motifs. Moreover, missense variants are situated close to zinc binding sites and are predicted to disrupt these sites. Pull-down assays of recombinant proteins and histone peptides revealed that a subset of the identified missense variants abolish or impaire DPF2 binding to unmodified and modified H3 histone tails. These results suggest an impairment of PHD finger structural integrity and cohesion and most likely an aberrant recognition of histone modifications. Furthermore, the overexpression of these variants in HEK293 and COS7 cell lines was associated with the formation of nuclear aggregates and the recruitment of both wild-type DPF2 and BRG1 to these aggregates. Expression analysis of truncating variants found in the affected individuals indicated that the aberrant transcripts escape nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, we provide compelling evidence that de novo variants in DPF2 cause Coffin-Siris syndrome and propose a dominant-negative mechanism of pathogenicity.
- NDUFB8 Mutations Cause Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency in Individuals with Leigh-like Encephalomyopathy. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 01
- Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh ...
Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh syndrome and other encephalomyopathies or cardiomyopathies. To date, disease-causing variants in genes coding for 27 complex I subunits, including 7 mitochondrial DNA genes, and in 11 genes encoding complex I assembly factors have been reported. Here, we describe rare biallelic variants in NDUFB8 encoding a complex I accessory subunit revealed by whole-exome sequencing in two individuals from two families. Both presented with a progressive course of disease with encephalo(cardio)myopathic features including muscular hypotonia, cardiac hypertrophy, respiratory failure, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Blood lactate was elevated. Neuroimaging disclosed progressive changes in the basal ganglia and either brain stem or internal capsule. Biochemical analyses showed an isolated decrease in complex I enzymatic activity in muscle and fibroblasts. Complementation studies by expression of wild-type NDUFB8 in cells from affected individuals restored mitochondrial function, confirming NDUFB8 variants as the cause of complex I deficiency. Hereby we establish NDUFB8 as a relevant gene in childhood-onset mitochondrial disease.
- This Month in The Journal. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 01; 102(2):197-198
- Response to Giem. [Letter]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 01; 102(2):331
- Bible Says Israelites Didn't Exterminate Sidonians. [Letter]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 01; 102(2):330
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- Otud7a Knockout Mice Recapitulate Many Neurological Features of 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Hum Genet 2018 Feb 01; 102(2):296-308
- 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, language impairment, abnormal beh...
15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, including developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, language impairment, abnormal behaviors, neuropsychiatric disorders, and hypotonia. This syndrome is caused by a deletion on chromosome 15q, which typically encompasses six genes. Here, through studies on OTU deubiquitinase 7A (Otud7a) knockout mice, we identify OTUD7A as a critical gene responsible for many of the cardinal phenotypes associated with 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome. Otud7a-null mice show reduced body weight, developmental delay, abnormal electroencephalography patterns and seizures, reduced ultrasonic vocalizations, decreased grip strength, impaired motor learning/motor coordination, and reduced acoustic startle. We show that OTUD7A localizes to dendritic spines and that Otud7a-null mice have decreased dendritic spine density compared to their wild-type littermates. Furthermore, frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) is reduced in the frontal cortex of Otud7a-null mice, suggesting a role of Otud7a in regulation of dendritic spine density and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Taken together, our results suggest decreased OTUD7A dosage as a major contributor to the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, through the misregulation of dendritic spine density and activity.