- Irisin and musculoskeletal health. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr 24
- Irisin is a hormone-like myokine produced in abundance by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, both in mice and humans. Once released into the circulation, irisin acts on white adipocytes to indu...
Irisin is a hormone-like myokine produced in abundance by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, both in mice and humans. Once released into the circulation, irisin acts on white adipocytes to induce the browning response and subsequently activates nonshivering thermogenesis. We have examined the premise that irisin produced during exercise may subserve further functions in the musculoskeletal system. We review evidence for its possible skeletal effects, including the central role that irisin plays in the control of bone mass, with positive effects on cortical mineral density and geometry in mice. We also review the autocrine effects of irisin in skeletal muscle, in which it upregulates the expression of its precursor (FNDC5). Since loss of bone and muscle mass occurs with aging, immobility, and several metabolic diseases, future studies exploring the efficacy of irisin in restoring bone and reversing muscle wasting could be important to establishing irisin as a molecule that combines beneficial effects for treating osteoporosis and muscular atrophy. If the results from mice were confirmed in human studies, an irisin-based therapy could be developed for physically disabled or bedridden patients.
- Corrigendum for Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1339: 176-189. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017; 1393(1):72-73
- Delivering an action agenda for nutrition interventions addressing adolescent girls and young women: priorities for implementation and research. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017; 1393(1):61-71
- Adolescent nutritional behaviors are assuming considerable importance in nutrition interventions given their important relationships with medium- and long-term outcomes. This is the period when young...
Adolescent nutritional behaviors are assuming considerable importance in nutrition interventions given their important relationships with medium- and long-term outcomes. This is the period when young people undergo major anatomical and physiological maturational changes in preparation for adulthood. Nutritional requirements during puberty are higher during adolescence than during the prepubertal stage and during adulthood. A significant proportion of adolescents also become parents, and hence the importance of their health and nutritional status before as well as during pregnancy has its impact on their own health, fetal well-being, and newborn health. In this paper, we describe the evidence-based nutrition recommendations and the current global guidance for nutrition actions for adolescents. Despite the limitations of available information, we believe that a range of interventions are feasible to address outcomes in this age group, although some would need to start earlier in childhood. We propose packages of preventive care and management comprising nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to address adolescent undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiencies. We discuss potential delivery platforms and strategies relevant to low- and middle-income countries. Beyond the evidence synthesis, there is a clear need to translate evidence into policy and for implementation of key recommendations and addressing knowledge gaps through prioritized research.
- Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017; 1393(1):21-33
- Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of ...
Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. Adolescence is characterized by a rapid pace of growth that is second only to that of infancy. Nutrition and the adolescent transition are closely intertwined, since eating patterns and behaviors are influenced by many factors, including peer influences, parental modeling, food availability, food preferences, cost, convenience, personal and cultural beliefs, mass media, and body image. Here, we describe the physiology, metabolism, and nutritional requirements for adolescents and pregnant adolescents, as well as nutrition-related behavior and current trends in adolescent nutrition. We conclude with thoughts on the implications for nutrition interventions and priority areas that would require further investigation.
- Systematic review on evidence-based adolescent nutrition interventions. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017; 1393(1):34-50
- Adolescence is a critical stage in the life cycle, and adequate nutrition is necessary for the proper growth and development of individuals and their offspring. Here, we comprehensively review all pu...
Adolescence is a critical stage in the life cycle, and adequate nutrition is necessary for the proper growth and development of individuals and their offspring. Here, we comprehensively review all published systematic reviews (through October 2016) on adolescents (10-19 years) and women of reproductive age, including pregnant women, which targeted interventions related to nutrition. For interventions where there was no existing systematic review on adolescents, we reviewed primary studies/trials. We included interventions on micronutrient supplementation (iron, folic acid, iron-folic acid (IFA), calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, zinc, iodine, and multiple micronutrients), food/protein energy supplementation, nutrition education for pregnant adolescents, obesity prevention and management, and management of gestational diabetes. We identified a total of 35 systematic reviews, of which only five were conducted on adolescents, and 107 primary studies on adolescents. Our review suggests that iron alone, IFA, zinc, and multiple micronutrient supplementation in adolescents can significantly improve serum hemoglobin concentration. While zinc supplementation in pregnant adolescents showed improvements in preterm birth and low birth weight, we found a paucity of trials on calcium, vitamin D, vitamin A, and iodine supplementation. We found limited evidence on food/protein energy supplementation in adolescents. Interventions to prevent and manage obesity showed a nonsignificant impact on reducing body mass index. This review underscores the importance of adolescent nutrition interventions. It is imperative that countries design nutritional interventions, particularly for adolescents.
- Global and regional trends in the nutritional status of young people: a critical and neglected age group. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017; 1393(1):3-20
- Adolescence and emerging adulthood form a critical time period for the achievement of optimal health and nutrition across all stages of the life course. We undertook a review of published literature ...
Adolescence and emerging adulthood form a critical time period for the achievement of optimal health and nutrition across all stages of the life course. We undertook a review of published literature and global data repositories for information on nutrition levels, trends, and patterns among young people aged 10-24 years from January 1, 2016 to September 20, 2016. We describe patterns for both males and females at the global level and for geographic regions for the period covering 1990-2015. The results of this study paint a less than ideal picture of current young people's nutrition, suggesting dual burdens of underweight and high body-mass index in many countries and variable improvements in micronutrient deficiencies across geographical regions. Poor diet diversity and lack of nutrient-dense food, high risk for metabolic syndrome, and sedentary lifestyles also characterize this population. The need for objective, comparable, and high-quality data is also recognized for further study in this area. As the global community works toward supporting and scaling up health gains in the sustainable development goal era, realizing the critical role of young people is essential. Investing in young people's nutrition is critical to making strides in improving the overall health and well-being of all populations.
- Review of nutrition guidelines relevant for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017; 1393(1):51-60
- The economic and social well-being of any country will one day depend on its current adolescent population. To provide a good foundation for healthy adolescent development, healthy diet, along with p...
The economic and social well-being of any country will one day depend on its current adolescent population. To provide a good foundation for healthy adolescent development, healthy diet, along with physical activity and adequate nutrients, is necessary. Therefore, addressing the nutrition needs of adolescents could be an important step toward breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition, chronic diseases, and poverty. These problems could be addressed with timely recognition and appropriately delivered interventions. Our aim here is to review the existing guidelines on various aspects of nutrition interventions for adolescents and young women. We review all of the major existing guidelines on adolescent nutrition. We were able to find 18 guideline bodies that covered some form of nutritional advice in guidelines that targeted adolescents. Although the guidelines that focus specifically on this age group are limited in scope, we also extrapolated recommendations from guidelines focused on adults, women of reproductive age, and pregnant women, which were based on evidence that included populations of adolescent girls. We were able to extract and synthesize specific directives for nutrition in adolescents, macro- and micronutrient supplementation, exercise, obesity, and nutrition during preconception, pregnancy, and the postconception period.
- Tricellulin is a target of the ubiquitin ligase Itch. [Journal Article]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr 24
- Tricellulin, a member of the tight junction-associated MAGUK protein family, preferentially localizes to tricellular junctions in confluent polarized epithelial cell layers and is downregulated durin...
Tricellulin, a member of the tight junction-associated MAGUK protein family, preferentially localizes to tricellular junctions in confluent polarized epithelial cell layers and is downregulated during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Posttranslational modifications are assumed to play critical roles in the process of downregulation of tricellulin at the protein level. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch forms a complex with tricellulin and thereby enhances its ubiquitination. Pull-down assays confirmed a direct interaction between tricellulin and Itch, which is mediated by the Itch WW domain and the N-terminus of tricellulin. Experiments in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 did not show major changes in the levels of ubiquitinated tricellulin in epithelial cells, suggesting that ubiquitination is not primarily involved in proteasomal degradation of tricellulin, but it appears to be important for endocytosis or recycling. In contrast, in HEK-293 cells, MG-132 caused polyubiquitination. Moreover, we observed that well-differentiated RT-112 and de-differentiated Cal-29 bladder cancer cells show an inverse expression of tricellulin and Itch. We postulate that ubiquitination is an important posttranslational modification involved in the determination of the intracellular fate of tricellulin deserving of more detailed further investigations into the underlying molecular mechanisms and their regulation.
- Structure, bioactivity, and synthesis of methylated flavonoids. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr 24
- Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid p...
Methylated flavonoids are an important type of natural flavonoid derivative with potentially multiple health benefits; among other things, they have improved bioavailability compared with flavonoid precursors. Flavonoids have been documented to have broad bioactivities, such as anticancer, immunomodulation, and antioxidant activities, that can be elevated, to a certain extent, by methylation. Understanding the structure, bioactivity, and bioavailability of methylated flavonoids, therefore, is an interesting topic with broad potential applications. Though methylated flavonoids are widely present in plants, their levels are usually low. Because developing efficient techniques to produce these chemicals would likely be beneficial, we provide an overview of their chemical and biological synthesis.
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- Cytoprotective effects of dietary flavonoids against cadmium-induced toxicity. [Review]
- ANAnn N Y Acad Sci 2017 Apr 19
- Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective ef...
Cadmium (Cd) damages the liver, kidney, bones, reproductive system, and other organs. Flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are commonly found in plant foods, have shown protective effects against Cd-induced damage. The cytoprotective effects of flavonoids against Cd-induced diseases are mainly attributable to three mechanisms. First, flavonoids clear reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing lipid peroxide production and improving the activity of antioxidation enzymes. Second, flavonoids chelate Cd, thus reducing the accumulation of Cd and altering the levels of other essential metal ions in vivo. Third, flavonoids reduce DNA damage and inhibit apoptosis. In addition, flavonoids were found to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis and improve glycometabolism and the secretion of reproductive hormones. We introduce the daily dosage and absorption rate of flavonoids and then focus on their bioactive effects against Cd-induced toxicity and reveal the underlying metabolic pathway, which provides a basis for further study of the nutritional prevention of Cd-induced injury. In particular, a better understanding is needed of the structure-activity relationship of flavonoids against Cd toxicity, which has not yet been reported.