- How right hemisphere damage after stroke can impair speech comprehension. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 09
- Acquired language disorders after stroke are strongly associated with left hemisphere damage. When language difficulties are observed in the context of right hemisphere strokes, patients are usually ...
Acquired language disorders after stroke are strongly associated with left hemisphere damage. When language difficulties are observed in the context of right hemisphere strokes, patients are usually considered to have atypical functional anatomy. By systematically integrating behavioural and lesion data from brain damaged patients with functional MRI data from neurologically normal participants, we investigated when and why right hemisphere strokes cause language disorders. Experiment 1 studied right-handed patients with unilateral strokes that damaged the right (n = 109) or left (n = 369) hemispheres. The most frequently impaired language task was: auditory sentence-to-picture matching after right hemisphere strokes; and spoken picture description after left hemisphere strokes. For those with auditory sentence-to-picture matching impairments after right hemisphere strokes, the majority (n = 9) had normal performance on tests of perceptual (visual or auditory) and linguistic (semantic, phonological or syntactic) processing. Experiment 2 found that these nine patients had significantly more damage to dorsal parts of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and the right inferior frontal sulcus compared to 75 other patients who also had right hemisphere strokes but were not impaired on the auditory sentence-to-picture matching task. Damage to these right hemisphere regions caused long-term speech comprehension difficulties in 67% of patients. Experiments 3 and 4 used functional MRI in two groups of 25 neurologically normal individuals to show that within the regions identified by Experiment 2, the right inferior frontal sulcus was normally activated by (i) auditory sentence-to-picture matching; and (ii) one-back matching when the demands on linguistic and non-linguistic working memory were high. Together, these experiments demonstrate that the right inferior frontal cortex contributes to linguistic and non-linguistic working memory capacity (executive function) that is needed for normal speech comprehension. Our results link previously unrelated literatures on the role of the right inferior frontal cortex in executive processing and the role of executive processing in sentence comprehension; which in turn helps to explain why right inferior frontal activity has previously been reported to increase during recovery of language function after left hemisphere stroke. The clinical relevance of our findings is that the detrimental effect of right hemisphere strokes on language is (i) much greater than expected; (ii) frequently observed after damage to the right inferior frontal sulcus; (iii) task dependent; (iv) different to the type of impairments observed after left hemisphere strokes; and (v) can result in long-lasting deficits that are (vi) not the consequence of atypical language lateralization.
- Early microglial activation and peripheral inflammation in dementia with Lewy bodies. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 06
- Inflammation is increasingly recognized as part of the pathology of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but its role in dementia with Lewy bodies remains...
Inflammation is increasingly recognized as part of the pathology of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but its role in dementia with Lewy bodies remains unclear. Using multimodal imaging and peripheral cytokine analysis, we therefore investigated central and peripheral inflammation in this common form of dementia. Nineteen participants with probable dementia with Lewy bodies and 16 similarly aged controls underwent 3 T MRI and PET imaging with 11C-PK11195, a marker of microglial activation in vivo. Peripheral blood inflammatory cytokines were also measured in all subjects, as well as in an additional 10 controls, using the Mesoscale Human Cytokine 36 plex panel and additional assays for high sensitivity c-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor receptor 1, IL-34, YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like protein 1) and colony stimulating factor 1. To test for the presence of in vivo amyloid, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B PET imaging was also performed in 16 of the dementia with Lewy body participants. Microglial activation was elevated in dementia with Lewy bodies subjects with mild disease when compared to those with moderate/severe impairment, where disease severity was indexed by cognitive performance on the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination. In patients, strong correlations were found between cognitive performance and 11C-PK11195 non-displaceable binding potential in several regions including the caudate nucleus (R = 0.83, P = 0.00008) and cuneus (R = 0.77, P = 0.0005). Several inflammatory cytokines were altered in the patients compared to controls, with elevated macrophage inflammatory protein-3 (P = 0.001), IL-17A (P = 0.008) and IL-2 (P = 0.046) and reduced IL-8 (P = 0.024). There was no correlation between cortical 11C-Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratio and clinical features, regional 11C-PK11195 binding or peripheral cytokine levels. Nor was there any regional correlation between 11C-PK11195 non-displaceable binding potentials and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B standardized uptake value ratios. Our findings provide evidence for both central and peripheral inflammatory changes in dementia with Lewy bodies, with microglial activation occurring early in the disease in key regions known to be associated with pathology, before declining as cognition declines. Raised peripheral cytokines associated with T cell function further suggest a role for the adaptive immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease.
- Erratum. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Oct 30
- Multiple sclerosis: is it all black and white in optical coherence tomography? [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 01; 141(11):3088-3091
- Listening for the rhythm of a conscious brain. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 01; 141(11):3095-3097
- PHACTRing in actin: actin deregulation in genetic epilepsies. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 01; 141(11):3084-3088
- Editorial. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 01; 141(11):3083
- Pre- and postsynaptic effects of LGI1 autoantibodies in a murine model of limbic encephalitis. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Nov 01; 141(11):3092-3095
- Reply: TDP-43 mutations increase HNRNP A1-7B through gain of splicing function. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Oct 25
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- TDP-43 mutations increase HNRNP A1-7B through gain of splicing function. [Journal Article]
- BBrain 2018 Oct 25