- Local cancer recurrence: The realities, challenges, and opportunities for new therapies. [Review]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018 Oct 17
- Locoregional recurrence negatively impacts both long-term survival and quality of life for several malignancies. For appropriate-risk patients with an isolated, resectable, local recurrence, surgery ...
Locoregional recurrence negatively impacts both long-term survival and quality of life for several malignancies. For appropriate-risk patients with an isolated, resectable, local recurrence, surgery represents the only potentially curative therapy. However, oncologic outcomes remain inferior for patients with locally recurrent disease even after macroscopically complete resection. Unfortunately, these operations are often extensive, with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality. This review highlights selected malignancies (mesothelioma, sarcoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, rectal cancer, and peritoneal surface malignancies) in which surgical resection is a key treatment modality and local recurrence plays a significant role in overall oncologic outcome with regard to survival and quality of life. For each type of cancer, the current, state-of-the-art treatment strategies and their outcomes are assessed. The need for additional therapeutic options is presented given the limitations of the current standard therapies. New and emerging treatment modalities, including polymer films and nanoparticles, are highlighted as potential future solutions for both prevention and treatment of locally recurrent cancers. Finally, the authors identify additional clinical and research opportunities and propose future research strategies based on the various patterns of local recurrence among the different cancers. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;000:000-000. ©2018 American Cancer Society, Inc.
- Toward the control of cancer. [Editorial]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018; 68(5):327-328
- A blueprint for the primary prevention of cancer: Targeting established, modifiable risk factors. [Journal Article]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018 Oct 10
- In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1.7 million people will be diagnosed with cancer, and more than 600,000 will die of the disease in 2018. The financial costs associated with cance...
In the United States, it is estimated that more than 1.7 million people will be diagnosed with cancer, and more than 600,000 will die of the disease in 2018. The financial costs associated with cancer risk factors and cancer care are enormous. To substantially reduce both the number of individuals diagnosed with and dying from cancer and the costs associated with cancer each year in the United States, government and industry and the public health, medical, and scientific communities must work together to develop, invest in, and implement comprehensive cancer control goals and strategies at the national level and expand ongoing initiatives at the state and local levels. This report is the second in a series of articles in this journal that, together, describe trends in cancer rates and the scientific evidence on cancer prevention, early detection, treatment, and survivorship to inform the identification of priorities for a comprehensive cancer control plan. Herein, we focus on existing evidence about established, modifiable risk factors for cancer, including prevalence estimates and the cancer burden due to each risk factor in the United States, and established primary prevention recommendations and interventions to reduce exposure to each risk factor.
- Better Guidelines Needed for Cancer Survivorship Management. [Journal Article]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018 Oct 09
- Smoking Cessation Aids Alone Do Not Help Smokers Quit. [Journal Article]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018 Oct 09
- Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. [Review]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018 Oct 08
- Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous malignancies arising from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They frequently originate in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract and the bronchopulmonar...
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous malignancies arising from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They frequently originate in the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract and the bronchopulmonary tree, and their incidence has steadily increased in the last 3 decades. Fundamental biologic and genomic differences underlie the clinical heterogeneity of NETs, and distinct molecular features characterize NETs of different grades and different primary sites. Although surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment for localized tumors, systemic treatment options for patients with metastatic NETs have expanded considerably. Somatostatin analogs have demonstrated both antisecretory and antitumor efficacy. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with lutetium-177 dotatate (177 Lu-DOTATATE) has been approved for advanced GEP-NETs. The antitumor activity of everolimus has been demonstrated across a wide spectrum of NETs, and the antiangiogenic agent sunitinib has been approved for pancreatic NETs (pNETs). Chemotherapy with temozolomide and capecitabine has recently demonstrated an unprecedented prolongation of progression-free survival in a randomized trial of pNETs. Multiple retrospective series have reported the efficacy of liver-directed therapies both for palliating symptoms of hormone excess and for controlling tumor growth. Telotristat, an oral inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, has been shown to reduce diarrhea in patients with carcinoid syndrome. Defining the therapeutic algorithm and identifying biomarkers predictive of response to treatments are among the main priorities for the next decade of research in the NET field.
- Cancer Statistics for Hispanics/Latinos, 2018. [Journal Article]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018 Oct 04
- Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics/Latinos, who represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, accounting for 17.8% (57.5 million) of the total population ...
Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics/Latinos, who represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, accounting for 17.8% (57.5 million) of the total population in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2016. In addition, more than 3 million Hispanic Americans live in the US territory of Puerto Rico. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer occurrence, risk factors, and screening for Hispanics in the United States based on data from the National Cancer Institute, the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For the first time, contemporary incidence and mortality rates for Puerto Rico, which has a 99% Hispanic population, are also presented. An estimated 149,100 new cancer cases and 42,700 cancer deaths will occur among Hispanics in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2018. For all cancers combined, Hispanics have 25% lower incidence and 30% lower mortality compared with non-Hispanic whites, although rates of infection-related cancers, such as liver, are up to twice as high in Hispanics. However, these aggregated data mask substantial heterogeneity within the Hispanic population because of variable cancer risk, as exemplified by the substantial differences in the cancer burden between island Puerto Ricans and other US Hispanics. For example, during 2011 to 2015, prostate cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico (146.6 per 100,000) were 60% higher than those in other US Hispanics combined (91.6 per 100,000) and 44% higher than those in non-Hispanic whites (101.7 per 100,000). Prostate cancer is also the leading cause of cancer death among men in Puerto Rico, accounting for nearly 1 in 6 cancer deaths during 2011-2015, whereas lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among other US Hispanic men combined. Variations in cancer risk are driven by differences in exposure to cancer-causing infectious agents and behavioral risk factors as well as the prevalence of screening. Strategies for reducing cancer risk in Hispanic populations include targeted, culturally appropriate interventions for increasing the uptake of preventive services and reducing cancer risk factor prevalence, as well as additional funding for Puerto Rico-specific and subgroup-specific cancer research and surveillance.
- Improving patient and caregiver outcomes in oncology: Team-based, timely, and targeted palliative care. [Review]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018; 68(5):356-376
- Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has accumulated supporting the integration of palliative care into oncology practice for patients with advanced cancer. The question is no longer whethe...
Over the past decade, a large body of evidence has accumulated supporting the integration of palliative care into oncology practice for patients with advanced cancer. The question is no longer whether palliative care should be offered, but what is the optimal model of delivery, when is the ideal time to refer, who is in greatest need of a referral, and how much palliative care should oncologists themselves be providing. These questions are particularly relevant given the scarcity of palliative care resources internationally. In this state-of-the-science review directed at the practicing cancer clinician, the authors first discuss the contemporary literature examining the impact of specialist palliative care on various health outcomes. Then, conceptual models are provided to support team-based, timely, and targeted palliative care. Team-based palliative care allows the interdisciplinary members to address comprehensively the multidimensional care needs of patients and their caregivers. Timely palliative care, at its best, is preventive care to minimize crises at the end of life. Targeted palliative care involves identifying the patients most likely to benefit from specialist palliative care interventions, akin to the concept of targeted cancer therapies. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of innovative care models, such as outpatient clinics, embedded clinics, nurse-led palliative care, primary palliative care provided by oncology teams, and automatic referral, are summarized. Moving forward, more research is needed to determine how different health systems can best personalize palliative care to provide the right level of intervention, for the right patient, in the right setting, at the right time. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;680:00-00. 2018 American Cancer Society, Inc.
- Hypercalcemia and cancer: Differential diagnosis and treatment. [Review]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018; 68(5):377-386
- Incidentally detected hypercalcemia usually presents in an indolent manner and is most likely caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. In contrast, hypercalcemia in the patient with a history of cancer...
Incidentally detected hypercalcemia usually presents in an indolent manner and is most likely caused by primary hyperparathyroidism. In contrast, hypercalcemia in the patient with a history of cancer presents in a wide range of clinical settings and may be severe enough to warrant hospitalization. This form of hypercalcemia is usually secondary to hypercalcemia of malignancy and can be fatal. Hypercalcemia of malignancy is most commonly mediated by tumoral production of parathyroid hormone-related protein or by cytokines activating osteoclast degradation of bone. The initial workup, differential diagnoses, confirmatory laboratory testing, imaging, and medical and surgical management of hypercalcemia are described in the patient with cancer.
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- Frequent use of tests to monitor metastatic prostate cancer often may be unwarranted. [Journal Article]
- CCCA Cancer J Clin 2018; 68(5):322-323