- Identification of the first homozygous POLG mutation causing non-syndromic ovarian dysfunction. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018 Jul 11; :1-5
- CONCLUSIONS: Biallelic mutations in POLG may be associated with ovarian dysfunction. This study has improved our understanding of POLG-related genetic mutations in ovarian dysfunction, and the mode of inheritance of certain sequence variants. This information will assist genetic counseling and precision medicine in the future.
- Progesterone. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018; 21(4):305
- Menopause - a new beginning. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018; 21(4):306-307
- Sexual well-being after menopause: An International Menopause Society White Paper. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018 Jul 10; :1-13
- Sexual well-being frequently declines following the menopause transition and can be associated with significant personal and relationship distress. This distress is the hallmark of female sexual dysf...
Sexual well-being frequently declines following the menopause transition and can be associated with significant personal and relationship distress. This distress is the hallmark of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD is highly prevalent in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of sexual problems increases with age, but conversely this is associated with decreasing distress with advancing age. This pattern has been seen across multiple international populations with varied cultural norms. While the etiology of FSD is multifactorial, the physiological changes of sex hormone insufficiency and postmenopausal symptoms, such as dyspareunia, are primary factors contributing to FSD at midlife. The International Menopause Society is working to increase awareness of FSD and to provide a framework for practitioners to address sexual medicine concerns. This White Paper aims to review the process of care for female sexual well-being following menopause, from initially approaching the discussion of FSD, to identifying clinical signs and symptoms, and ultimately determining the best available biopsychosocial therapies. As with most processes of care, the first step is often the most difficult. Health-care practitioners need to broach the topic of sexuality in the clinical setting. Lack of information on, comfort with, and biases about the topic of sexuality after menopause are significant hurdles that the International Menopause Society addresses in this document. Each member of the Writing Group remains committed to continued advocacy for the validity of FSD as a diagnosis, the need for therapies for women to be both available and included in health insurance coverage, and continued therapeutic research to provide evidence-based solutions.
- Progesterone for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018; 21(4):366-374
- Estradiol (E2) is women's dominant 'bone hormone' since it is essential for development of adolescent peak bone mineral density (BMD) and physiological levels prevent the rapid (3-week) bone resorpti...
Estradiol (E2) is women's dominant 'bone hormone' since it is essential for development of adolescent peak bone mineral density (BMD) and physiological levels prevent the rapid (3-week) bone resorption that causes most adult BMD loss. However, deceasing E2 levels trigger bone resorption/loss. Progesterone (P4) is E2's physiological partner, collaborating with E2 in every cell/tissue; its bone 'job' is to increase P4-receptor-mediated, slow (3-4 months) osteoblastic new bone formation. When menstrual cycles are normal length and normally ovulatory, E2 and P4 are balanced and BMD is stable. However, clinically normal cycles commonly have ovulatory disturbances (anovulation, short luteal phases) and low P4 levels; these are more frequent in teen and perimenopausal women and increased by everyday stressors: energy insufficiency, emotional/social/economic threats and illness. Meta-analysis shows that almost 1%/year spinal BMD loss occurs in those with greater than median (∼31%) of ovulatory disturbed cycles. Prevention of osteoporosis and fragility fractures requires the reversal of stressors, detection and treatment of teen-to-perimenopausal recurrent cycle/ovulatory disturbances with cyclic oral micronized progesterone. Low 'Peak Perimenopausal BMD' is likely the primary risk for fragility fractures in later life. Progesterone plus estradiol or other antiresorptive therapies adds 0.68%/year and may be a highly effective osteoporosis treatment. Randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm progesterone's important role in women's bone formation.
- Progesterone for treatment of symptomatic menopausal women. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018; 21(4):358-365
- This review's purpose is to highlight evidence that oral micronized progesterone (progesterone) is effective for hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms, VMS), improves sleep and is likely s...
This review's purpose is to highlight evidence that oral micronized progesterone (progesterone) is effective for hot flushes and night sweats (vasomotor symptoms, VMS), improves sleep and is likely safe in menopausal women (who are more than 1 year since last menstruation). Methods include randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) supplemented with basic science, population and observational data as needed. The barrier to use of progesterone is lack of awareness that safety concerns with estrogen-including 'menopausal hormone therapy' (MHT) are not applicable to progesterone. In a single 3-month RCT, progesterone (300 mg at bedtime) was effective treatment of VMS in 133 healthy menopausal women. It caused an overall 55% VMS decrease, no withdrawal-related VMS rebound and a greater VMS decrease in 46 women with ≥50 moderate-intense VMS/week. Progesterone is equally or more effective than estradiol in improving cardiovascular endothelial function and caused no cardiovascular safety concerns in a 3-month RCT. An 8-year prospective cohort study (E3N) in more than 80 000 menopausal women showed progesterone prevented breast cancer in estrogen-treated women. Multiple RCTs confirm that progesterone (300 mg daily at bedtime) does not cause depression and improves deep sleep. In conclusion, progesterone effectively treats VMS, improves sleep and may be the only therapy that symptomatic women, who are menopausal at a normal age and without osteoporosis, need.
- Health-related quality of life and its associated factors in Chinese middle-aged women. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018 Jun 01; :1-8
- CONCLUSIONS: There was a difference in HRQOL by menopausal stage in middle-aged Chinese women. Menopause might exert a negative impact on HRQOL, adjusting for menopausal symptoms and sociodemographic factors.
- Progesterone, progestins and the breast in menopause treatment. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018 Jun 01; :1-7
- Breast cancer is the main risk associated with menopause hormone therapy (MHT). It is a hormone-dependent cancer. In postmenopausal women, about 80% of cases are estradiol receptor-positive. In cohor...
Breast cancer is the main risk associated with menopause hormone therapy (MHT). It is a hormone-dependent cancer. In postmenopausal women, about 80% of cases are estradiol receptor-positive. In cohort studies only estradiol receptor-positive breast cancers are promoted by MHT. Different levels of risk with estrogen-only treatment and combined treatment with estrogen + progestin are shown in randomized trials and observational studies. Several non-randomized studies show a lower risk with progesterone and retroprogesterone than with synthetic progestins. Progesterone and progestin are non-selective ligands for the progesterone receptor and bind also with other steroid receptors, with agonistic or antagonistic effects according to the structure of the molecule. Their half-life and metabolism are also different, progesterone being rapidly degraded with a short half-life. These aspects will be discussed in this review.
- Progesterone and human cognition. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018 Jun 01; :1-8
- Progesterone is a neurosteroid and a neuroactive steroid, produced primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. In some animal models, progesterone affects cognitive performance, and its potentia...
Progesterone is a neurosteroid and a neuroactive steroid, produced primarily by the corpus luteum and the placenta. In some animal models, progesterone affects cognitive performance, and its potential role in human cognition is especially germane to women. This role can be investigated through associations between peripheral concentrations of progesterone in blood or saliva and neuropsychological test results, through differences in cognitive profiles between women using menopausal hormone therapy with and without a progestogen, and through clinical trials. In naturally cycling reproductive-age women and pregnant women, there is no consistent relation between progesterone levels and cognition. In postmenopausal women within 6 years of menopause and not using hormone therapy, progesterone levels are positively associated with verbal memory and global cognition, but reported associations in older postmenopausal women are null. Some observational studies of postmenopausal women using hormone therapy raise concern of a small deleterious cognitive effect of progestogen (medroxyprogesterone acetate was most often reported in these studies), but this association may due to confounding factors. Small, short-term clinical trials of progesterone show no meaningful effect on cognition. The quality of evidence is low, but overall findings do not reveal consistent, clinically important effects of progesterone on cognitive function in women.
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- The history of natural progesterone, the never-ending story. [Journal Article]
- CClimacteric 2018 May 28; :1-7
- The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length descri...
The term progesterone should only be used for the natural hormone produced by the ovaries or included in a registered drug. The modern history of progesterone begins with the first book-length description of the female reproductive system including the corpus luteum and later with the Nobel Prize winner, Adolf Butenandt who took a crucial step when he succeeded in converting pregnanediol into a chemically pure form of progesterone, the corpus luteum hormone. The deficient production of progesterone was shown first to be the cause of the luteal-phase deficiency responsible for infertility and early pregnancy loss due to inadequate secretory transformation of the endometrium. Later, progesterone was confirmed to be the best and safest method of providing luteal-phase support in assisted reproductive technology. Progesterone provides adequate endometrial protection and is suggested to be the optimal progestagen in menopausal hormone therapy in terms of cardiovascular effects, venous thromboembolism, probably stroke and even breast cancer risk. Neuroprotective effects of progesterone have also been demonstrated in several of experimental models including cerebral ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Vaginal progesterone was shown to decrease the risk of preterm birth in women with a mid-trimester sonographic short cervix and to improve perinatal outcomes in singleton and twin gestations.