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(Cochrane Database Syst Rev[TA])
13,563 results
  • Antiepileptic drugs as prophylaxis for postcraniotomy seizures. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 23; 5:CD007286
  • Greenhalgh J, Weston J, … Marson AG
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is limited, low-quality evidence to suggest that AED treatment administered prophylactically is either effective or not effective in the prevention of postcraniotomy (early or late) seizures. The current evidence base is limited due to the different methodologies employed in the trials and inconsistencies in the reporting of outcomes including deaths and adverse events. Further evidence from good-quality, contemporary trials is required in order to assess the clinical effectiveness of prophylactic AED treatment compared to placebo or no treatment, or other AEDs in preventing postcraniotomy seizures in this select group of patients.
  • WITHDRAWN: Treatments for adults with prominent lower front teeth. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 23; 5:CD006963
  • Minami-Sugaya H, Lentini-Oliveira DA, … Prado GF
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence from the two included trials, to conclude that one procedure is better or worse than another. The included trials compared different interventions and were at high risk of bias and therefore no implications for practice can be given. Further high quality randomized controlled trials with long term follow-up are required.
  • WITHDRAWN: Interventions for replacing missing teeth: 1- versus 2-stage implant placement. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 23; 5:CD006698
  • Esposito M, Grusovin MG, … Worthington HV
  • CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients included in the trials was too small to draw definitive conclusions. The 1-stage approach might be preferable in partially edentulous patients since it avoids one surgical intervention and shortens treatment times, while a 2-stage submerged approach could be indicated when an implant has not obtained an optimal primary stability or when barriers are used for guided tissue regeneration, or when it is expected that removable temporary prostheses could transmit excessive forces on the penetrating abutments especially in fully edentulous patients.
  • Blue-light filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) for protecting macular health. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 22; 5:CD011977
  • Downie LE, Busija L, Keller PR
  • CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review shows with moderate certainty that there is no clinically meaningful difference in short-term BCVA with the two types of IOLs. Further, based upon available data, these findings suggest that there is no clinically meaningful difference in short-term contrast sensitivity with the two interventions, although there was a low level of certainty for this outcome due to a small number of included studies and their inherent risk of bias. Based upon current, best-available research evidence, it is unclear whether blue-light filtering IOLs preserve macular health or alter risks associated with the development and progression of AMD, or both. Further research is required to fully understand the effects of blue-light filtering IOLs for providing protection to macular health and function.
  • Oral contraceptives for pain associated with endometriosis. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 22; 5:CD001019
  • Brown J, Crawford TJ, … Prentice A
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the limited evidence from two trials at high risk of bias and limited data for the prespecified outcomes for this review, there is insufficient evidence to make a judgement on the effectiveness of the COCP compared with placebo and the findings cannot be generalised.Based on the limited evidence from one small trial that was at high risk of bias, there is insufficient evidence to make a judgement on the effectiveness of the COCP compared with other medical treatments. Only one comparison was possible, with the medical intervention being goserelin, and the findings cannot be generalised.Further research is needed to fully evaluate the role of COCPs in managing pain-related symptoms associated with endometriosis. There are other formulations of the combined hormonal contraception such as the transdermal patch, vaginal ring or combined injectable contraceptives which this review did not cover but should be considered in future updates.
  • Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia for pain management in labour. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 21; 5:CD000331
  • Anim-Somuah M, Smyth RM, … Cuthbert A
  • CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality evidence shows that epidural analgesia may be more effective in reducing pain during labour and increasing maternal satisfaction with pain relief than non-epidural methods. Although overall there appears to be an increase in assisted vaginal birth when women have epidural analgesia, a post hoc subgroup analysis showed this effect is not seen in recent studies (after 2005), suggesting that modern approaches to epidural analgesia in labour do not affect this outcome. Epidural analgesia had no impact on the risk of caesarean section or long-term backache, and did not appear to have an immediate effect on neonatal status as determined by Apgar scores or in admissions to neonatal intensive care. Further research may be helpful to evaluate rare but potentially severe adverse effects of epidural analgesia and non-epidural analgesia on women in labour and long-term neonatal outcomes.
  • Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 17; 5:CD008552
  • Hodder RK, O'Brien KM, … Wolfenden L
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite identifying 63 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains limited. There was very low- and low-quality evidence respectively that child-feeding practice and multicomponent interventions may lead to very small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. It is uncertain whether parent nutrition education interventions are effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. Given that the quality of the evidence is very low or low, future research will likely change estimates and conclusions. Long-term follow-up is required and future research should adopt more rigorous methods to advance the field.This is a living systematic review. Living systematic reviews offer a new approach to review updating, in which the review is continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review.
  • Automated mandatory bolus versus basal infusion for maintenance of epidural analgesia in labour. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 17; 5:CD011344
  • Sng BL, Zeng Y, … Sia AT
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is predominantly moderate-certainty evidence that AMB is similar to BI for maintaining epidural analgesia for labour for all measured outcomes and may have the benefit of decreasing the risk of breakthrough pain and improving maternal satisfaction while decreasing the amount of local anaesthetic needed.
  • Immersion in water during labour and birth. [Review]
  • CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 May 16; 5:CD000111
  • Cluett ER, Burns E, Cuthbert A
  • CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women at low risk of complications there is moderate to low-quality evidence that water immersion during the first stage of labour probably has little effect on mode of birth or perineal trauma, but may reduce the use of regional analgesia. The evidence for immersion during the second stage of labour is limited and does not show clear differences on maternal or neonatal outcomes intensive care. There is no evidence of increased adverse effects to the fetus/neonate or woman from labouring or giving birth in water. Available evidence is limited by clinical variability and heterogeneity across trials, and no trial has been conducted in a midwifery-led setting.
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