- [Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition for treatment of endothelial barrier and microcirculation disorders in sepsis]. [Review]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 20
- Sepsis is commonly associated with loss of microvascular endothelial barrier function (capillary leak) and dysfunctional microcirculation, which both promote organ failure. The development of a disti...
Sepsis is commonly associated with loss of microvascular endothelial barrier function (capillary leak) and dysfunctional microcirculation, which both promote organ failure. The development of a distinct therapy of impaired endothelial barrier function and disturbed microcirculation is highly relevant because both of these phenomena constitute crucial processes which critically influence the prognosis of patients. Numerous in vivo and in vitro trials over the past years have fostered a better understanding of the pathophysiology of capillary leak. Furthermore, promising data in animal models show that therapeutic modulation of endothelial barrier function and microcirculation can be achieved by stabilizing endothelial cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) levels followed by activation of Rho-GTPase Rac1, e. g. by phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors. This review summarizes and discusses recent findings of cellular mechanisms and in vivo trials.
- [Future of emergency medicine in Germany 2.0]. [Review]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 19
- In 2003 an article on the future of prehospital emergency medicine in Germany was published in the journal Der Anaesthesist. Emergency medicine in Germany, which at that time was almost exclusively d...
In 2003 an article on the future of prehospital emergency medicine in Germany was published in the journal Der Anaesthesist. Emergency medicine in Germany, which at that time was almost exclusively defined as prehospital emergency rescue, has evolved and now in-hospital domains have increasingly moved into the focus. At that time, the primary goal was to connect prehospital management with a smooth transition to hospital admission and further care in the hospital and to further optimize the rescue chain from the actual emergency through to causative treatment. Now after 15 years, the authors have critically assessed the development postulated in 2003 and reevaluated it. Which aspects could be developed further and become firmly established, what is still open and which questions in preclinical and clinical emergency treatment of the population will occupy us in the coming 15 years? With a critical eye to the past, the present contribution aims to capture the essential and new topics and open questions and provide a fresh perspective for the future of emergency medicine. Regulation at the state level or even lower levels of government often stand in contrast to more sweeping and economically effective approaches at the federal level. Prehospital emergency medicine in Germany is on the whole well-positioned with respect to facilities and personnel; however, as far as the economic situation and the utilization of available systems are concerned, there is still substantial room for improvement.
- [Safe treatment of acute hyperkalemia : The 1:4 and other principles]. [Review]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 13
- Acute hyperkalemia is a dangerous electrolyte disorder, which must be treated immediately. It can lead to cardiac arrhythmia and death due to alterations in cell membrane potentials. The resulting al...
Acute hyperkalemia is a dangerous electrolyte disorder, which must be treated immediately. It can lead to cardiac arrhythmia and death due to alterations in cell membrane potentials. The resulting alterations in the electrocardiogram (ECG) are multifarious and need to be rapidly recognized. Treatment consists of various stages. In addition to membrane stabilization, which is always necessary, potassium must be displaced into the intracellular space and then eliminated from the body. A commonly applied method for displacement of potassium into the intracellular space involves the administration of insulin-glucose mixtures, which is associated with many complications. In the clinical routine many prescription variations are applied, which do not always appear to be ideal with respect to the individual risk-benefit ratio. A practically useful and easily memorized insulin-glucose mixture has a relationship of 1IU insulin to 4g glucose. The therapeutic elimination from the body is carried out using an enhanced diuresis or the utilization of renal replacement procedures. Special attention must be paid to the continous monitoring of potassium and blood sugar levels. After overcoming the acute situation, attention must be paid to treatment of the underlying disorder and if necessary to readjustment of the long-term medication of the patient.
- [Legal cases in emergency medicine - the Swiss legal situation]. [Letter]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 12
- State of the art in fluid and volume therapy : A user-friendly staged concept. English version. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 10
- Adequate intraoperative infusion therapy is essential for the perioperative outcome of a patient. Both hypo- and hypervolemia can lead to an increased rate of perioperative complications and to a wor...
Adequate intraoperative infusion therapy is essential for the perioperative outcome of a patient. Both hypo- and hypervolemia can lead to an increased rate of perioperative complications and to a worse outcome. Perioperative infusion therapy should therefore be needs-based. The primary objective is the maintenance of preoperative normovolemia using a rational infusion strategy. Perioperative fluid losses should be differentiated from volume losses due to surgical bleeding or protein losses into the interstitial space. Fluid loss via urine excretion or insensible perspiration (0.5-1.0 ml/kg/h) should be replaced with balanced, isooncotic, crystalloid infusion solutions in a ratio of 1:1. Volume therapy stage 1: intraoperative volume losses up to a blood loss corresponding to 20% of the patient's total blood volume are compensated for by balanced crystalloids in a ratio of 4-5:1. Stage 2: blood losses exceeding this level are to be treated with isooncotic colloids (preferably balanced) in a 1:1 ratio. In this regard taking into consideration the contraindications, e. g., sepsis, burns, critical illness (usually patients in the intensive care unit), impaired renal function or renal replacement therapy, intracranial hemorrhage, or severe coagulopathy, artificial colloids such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) can be used perioperatively for volume replacement. Stage 3: if an allogeneic blood transfusion is indicated, blood and blood products are applied in a differentiated manner.
- [Quality indicators for rescue operations in terrorist attacks or other threats : A pilot study after the Würzburg terrorist attack of July 2016]. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 06
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study we first describe quality indicators and parameters suitable for the German rescue system in order to evaluate rescue operations for violence caused mass casualties. There is similar international documentation, but it does not specifically focus on life-threatening operations and are not adapted to the German context.There is an important need to systematically evaluate rescue missions after mass killing incidents. In this study we report a template of parameters and quality indicators in order to systematically evaluate mass violence events. The presented template is the result of an expert consensus process and may serve as a basis for further development and research.
- [Update in neuroanesthesiology - key publications]. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Apr 06
- One of the aims of the Scientific Working Group Neuroanesthesia (WAKNA) of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine is to disseminate new findings in the field of neuroscience...
One of the aims of the Scientific Working Group Neuroanesthesia (WAKNA) of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine is to disseminate new findings in the field of neuroscience and neuroanesthesia and to propagate novel therapeutic and diagnostic options into clinical practice. Once a year, the WAKNA displays and discusses recent noteworthy publications from the past 12 months at the German Anesthesia Meeting. In 2016, a new pharmacologic strategy with dexmedetomidine to prevent postoperative pain after craniotomy, the impact of the widely used anesthetic drug propofol on GABA receptor surface expression, a study highlighting the ultrasound-guided detection of increased intracranial pressure, and an article showing the interactions of neuromuscular blocking drugs on the BIS neuromonitoring were presented.
- [Palliative therapy concepts in intensive care medicine]. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesist 2017; 66(4):233-239
- Involvement of palliative care is so far not common practice for critically ill patients on surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. The objectives of palliative care concepts are improvement...
Involvement of palliative care is so far not common practice for critically ill patients on surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. The objectives of palliative care concepts are improvement of patient quality of life by relief of disease-related symptoms using an interdisciplinary approach and support of patients and their relatives considering their current physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. The need for palliative care can be identified via defined screening criteria. Integration of palliative care can either be realized using a consultative model which focusses on involvement of palliative care consultants or an integrative model which embeds palliative care principles into the routine daily practice by the ICU team. Early integration of palliative care in terms of advance care planning (ACP) can lead to an increase in goals of care discussions and quality of life as well as a decrease of mortality and length of stay on the ICU. Moreover, stress reactions of relatives and ICU staff can be reduced and higher satisfaction with therapy can be achieved. The core of goal of care discussions is professional and well-structured communication between patients, relatives and staff. Consideration of palliative care principles by model-based integration into ICU practice can improve complex intensive care courses of disease in a productive but dignified way without neglecting curative attempts.
- [Antipyretics in intensive care patients]. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Mar 31
- CONCLUSIONS: The benefit of fever control using antipyretics in intensive care patients with regard to endpoints like lethality remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials with suitable protocols and endpoints are needed to provide a solid base for development of guidelines.
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- [International guidelines from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign : 2016 update]. [Journal Article]
- AAnaesthesist 2017 Mar 31
- An update to the international guidelines for sepsis therapy was published by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) in March 2017. The guidelines have been completely restructured and comprehensively d...
An update to the international guidelines for sepsis therapy was published by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) in March 2017. The guidelines have been completely restructured and comprehensively deal with new evidence. The guidelines discuss sepsis-specific therapeutic measures and provide detailed recommendations on general intensive care measures for sepsis. This article summarizes the most important amendments and suggests delving deeper into the guidelines.