- Arsenic metabolism and cancer risk: A meta-analysis. [Review]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 20; 156:551-558
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide additional support that methylation needs to be taken into account when assessing the potential iAs carcinogenicity risk.
- Assessment of temporal variation for the risk of particulate matters on asthma hospitalization. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 19; 156:542-550
- Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal va...
Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal variation in risks of PM on mortality has been suggested. We investigated short-term effect of both PM10 and PM2.5 on asthma hospitalization, and assessed temporal variation of PM risks in Seoul, Korea, 2003-2011. Generalized additive model was used to estimate PM risks on asthma hospitalization with consideration by long-term trend, influenza epidemic, day of week, meteorological factors. To assess temporal variation of PM risks, year-round PM risks were estimated. Stratified analysis by season and age-group were also conducted. Estimated RRs of PM on asthma hospitalization by an increase of 10㎍/㎥were 1.0084 (95% CI: 1.0041-1.0127) and 1.0156 (95% CI: 1.0055-1.0259) respectively with 7-days lag periods (lag06). PM2.5 had stronger effect than PM10 for all age group. Elderly group was most affected by PM. For the analysis of temporal variation of PM risks, we found increasing trend in total population and the elderly group. In the season-specific analysis, we also found increasing trend in winter for PM10, and in spring for PM2.5. PM10 and PM2.5 has adverse effect on asthma hospitalization with evidence suggesting temporal variation in PM risks. Further research will be needed to confirm the temporal variation of PM risk on asthma hospitalization, and to identify casual factors affecting this temporal variation. This study results could be evidentiary materials for establishing valid public health policies to reduce health burden or economic burden of asthma.
- Chemical, biological, and DNA markers for tracing slaughterhouse effluent. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 19; 156:534-541
- Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outsk...
Agricultural practices, if not managed correctly, can have a negative impact on receiving environments via waste disposal and discharge. In this study, a chicken slaughter facility on the rural outskirts of Sydney, Australia, has been identified as a possible source of persistent effluent discharge into a peri-urban catchment. Questions surrounding the facility's environmental management practices go back more than four decades. Despite there having never been a definitive determination of the facility's impact on local stream water quality, the New South Wales Environment Protection Authority (NSW EPA) has implemented numerous pollution reduction requirements to manage noise and water pollution at the slaughter facility. However, assessment of compliance remains complicated by potential additional sources of pollution in the catchment. To unravel this long-standing conundrum related to water pollution we apply a forensic, multiple lines of evidence approach to delineate the origin of the likely pollution source(s). Water samples collected between 2014 and 2016 from irrigation pipes and a watercourse exiting the slaughter facility had elevated concentrations of ammonia (max: 63,000µg/L), nitrogen (max: 67,000µg/L) and phosphorous (max: 39,000µg/L), which were significantly higher than samples from adjacent streams that did not receive direct runoff from the facility. Arsenic, sometimes utilised in growth promoting compounds, was detected in water discharging from the facility up to ~ 4 times (max 3.84µg/L) local background values (<0.5µg/L), with inorganic As((∑V+III)) being the dominant species. The spatial association of elevated water pollution to the facility could not unequivocally distinguish a source and consequently DNA analysis of a suspected pollution discharge event was undertaken. Analysis of catchment runoff from several local streams showed that only water sampled at the downstream boundary of the facility tested positive for chicken DNA, with traces of duck DNA being absent, which was a potential confounder given that wild ducks are present in the area. Further, PCR analysis showed that only the discharge water emanating from the slaughter facility tested positive for a generalized marker of anthropogenic pollution, the clinical class 1 integron-integrase gene. The environmental data collected over a three-year period demonstrates that the slaughter facility is indisputably the primary source of water-borne pollution in the catchment. Moreover, application of DNA and PCR for confirming pollution sources demonstrates its potential for application by regulators in fingerprinting pollution sources.
- Recent aspects of uranium toxicology in medical geology. [Review]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 18; 156:526-533
- Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may caus...
Uranium (U) is a chemo-toxic, radiotoxic and even a carcinogenic element. Due to its radioactivity, the effects of U on humans health have been extensively investigated. Prolonged U exposure may cause kidney disease and cancer. The geological distribution of U radionuclides is still a great concern for human health. Uranium in groundwater, frequently used as drinking water, and general environmental pollution with U raise concerns about the potential public health problem in several areas of Asia. The particular paleo-geological hallmark of India and other Southern Asiatic regions enhances the risk of U pollution in rural and urban communities. This paper highlights different health and environmental aspects of U as well as uptake and intake. It discusses levels of U in soil and water and the related health issues. Also described are different issues of U pollution, such as U and fertilizers, occupational exposure in miners, use and hazards of U in weapons (depleted U), U and plutonium as catalysts in the reaction between DNA and H2O2, and recycling of U from groundwater to surface soils in irrigation. For use in medical geology and U research, large databases and data warehouses are currently available in Europe and the United States.
- The effects of maternal and children phthalate exposure on the neurocognitive function of 6-year-old children. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 18; 156:519-525
- The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phthalate exposure on the intelligence and attentional performance of 6-year old children when adjusting each other as covariates. ...
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of phthalate exposure on the intelligence and attentional performance of 6-year old children when adjusting each other as covariates. We also investigated the differential effects of phthalate exposure on the intelligence and attention according to exposure period (maternal or children). Urine concentrations of mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) were analyzed. Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between exposure to various phthalates with IQ scores and continuous performance test (CPT) variables. There were robust associations between child MEHHP and MEOHP levels with full scale IQ (FSIQ) even after adjusting for demographic variables and CPT scores (MEHHP -9.27, 95% CI: -17.25, -1.29; MEOHP -9.83, 95% CI: -17.44, -2.21). Child MEHHP and MEHOP levels negatively affected omission errors (MEHHP -20.36, 95% CI: -34.17, -6.55; MEOHP -18.93, 95% CI: -32.58, -5.28) and the response time variability (MEHHP -21.07, 95% CI: -39.04, -3.10; MEOHP -20.41, 95% CI -38.14, -2.69) of the CPT after adjusting for demographic variables and IQ. Maternal phthalate exposure had no effects on IQ or CPT variables. These results suggest that children phthalate exposure, but not maternal exposure, has an adverse effect on IQ and attentional performance, and these associations were found to be independent of each other.
- Development of novel alternative biodiesel fuels for reducing PM emissions and PM-related genotoxicity. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 18; 156:512-518
- This paper intend to investigate the effects of biodiesel fuel blends comprising of waste-cooking oil and butanol-diesel (B10W10-B10W40) under steady-state conditions. Both particulate organic carbon...
This paper intend to investigate the effects of biodiesel fuel blends comprising of waste-cooking oil and butanol-diesel (B10W10-B10W40) under steady-state conditions. Both particulate organic carbon (OC) and PM including PM2.5 and PM10 significantly decreased with the increasing percentage of biodiesel fuel blends. The fuel blend of B10W40 also demonstrated the most effective function in reducing the emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 in the volume by 59.4% and 57.7%, respectively. Moreover, the emissions of nitrogen oxides decreased with the blending of B10W10-B10W40 (13.9-28.5%), while the brake specific fuel consumption was substantially increased (5.69-13.4%). The overall biological toxicity of PM10 generated from the fuel tested in this study was determined according to Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay in human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells and micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. In addition, the volume of more than 20% waste-cooking oil (B10W20 and B10W40) significantly reduced diesel-induced genotoxicity in lung cells and micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells. Collectively, these results indicated that biodiesel fuel blends with the butanol could be a potential alternative fuels for diesel engines because of its substantial property with a significant reduction of the PM-related genotoxicity and the emissions of PM, particulate OC, and NOX.
- Urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy and birth outcomes. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 17; 156:505-511
- CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, maternal urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy were inversely associated with infants' birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age.
- Temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging flame retardants in belugas from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) and comparisons with minke whales and Canadian Arctic belugas. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 15; 156:494-504
- An exponential level increase of the ubiquitous halogenated flame retardant (HFR) class polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been documented during the 1990s in endangered belugas (Delphinapterus...
An exponential level increase of the ubiquitous halogenated flame retardant (HFR) class polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been documented during the 1990s in endangered belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. The recent worldwide bans and regulations of PBDE mixtures led to their replacement by alternative HFRs (so-called emerging HFRs) that are increasingly being reported in various environmental compartments. There are, however, limited knowledge on the spatial and temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging HFRs in cetaceans, especially after restrictions on PBDE usage. The first objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HFRs (35 PBDE congeners and 13 emerging compounds) in the blubber of belugas and minke whales (Balænoptera acutorostrata) found dead in the Estuary or Gulf of St. Lawrence as well as belugas from Nunavik (Canadian Arctic) collected as part of the Inuit subsistence hunt. A second objective was to investigate the trends of HFR concentrations in SLE beluga males between 1997 and 2013. PBDEs were the most abundant HFRs in all three whale populations, while hexabromobenzene (HBB), Chlordene Plus (CPlus), Dechlorane Plus (DP), and Dechlorane 604 Component B (Dec-604 CB) were quantified in the majority of blubber samples. Overall, concentrations of emerging HFRs were notably greater in SLE belugas compared to the two other whale populations, with the exception of DP and Dec-604 CB that were found in greater concentrations in Canadian Arctic belugas. No significant trend in blubber PBDE concentrations was found in SLE belugas during this 17-year period. This suggests that global PBDE regulations are too recent to observe changes in PBDE concentrations in belugas from this highly HFR-exposed environment. In contrast, concentrations of HBB and CPlus in SLE belugas decreased slightly from 1997 to 2013, while DP increased up until 2000 and decreased slightly thereafter. The occurrence and temporal variations of PBDEs and their replacement products in these cetaceans warrant continuous monitoring.
- Environmental stressors as a driver of the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in polluted Iberian rivers. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 14; 156:485-493
- We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. ...
We used the trait composition of macroinvertebrate communities to identify the effects of pesticides and multiple stressors associated with urban land use at different sites of four rivers in Spain. Several physical and chemical stressors (high metal pollution, nutrients, elevated temperature and flow alterations) affected the urban sites. The occurrence of multiple stressors influenced aquatic assemblages at 50% of the sites. We hypothesized that the trait composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages would reflect the strategies that the assemblages used to cope with the respective environmental stressors. We used RLQ and fourth corner analysis to address the relationship between stressors and the trait composition of benthic macroinvertebrates. We found a statistically significant relationship between the trait composition and the exposure of assemblages to environmental stressors. The first RLQ dimension, which explained most of the variability, clearly separated sites according to the stressors. Urban-related stressors selected taxa that were mainly plurivoltine and fed on deposits. In contrast, pesticide impacted sites selected taxa with high levels of egg protection (better egg survival), indicating a potentially higher risk for egg mortality. Moreover, the trait diversity of assemblages at urban sites was low compared to that observed in pesticide impacted sites, suggesting the homogenization of assemblages in urban areas.
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- Determinants of increasing serum POPs in a population at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Results from the PREDIMED-CANARIAS study. [Journal Article]
- EREnviron Res 2017 Apr 14; 156:477-484
- Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are well-known ubiquitous environmental chemicals which have been related to adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this ...
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are well-known ubiquitous environmental chemicals which have been related to adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate POPs burden, and its determinants, in a population at high risk of suffering CVD enrolled in the PREDIMED Study (Spanish acronym for PREvention by means of MEDiterranean Diet). This cohort was formed by 343 participants (55-80 y.o.), which were selected for a preventive nutritional intervention for CVD based on the Mediterranean Diet. Relevant information on demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics was obtained from each participant through a specific questionnaire, and their anthropometric and clinical measurements were recorded. In addition, the levels of 35 POPs were determined in serum samples taken before the beginning of the nutritional intervention. All the samples showed detectable levels of, at least, one POP, being DDT-derivatives and marker-PCBs the most frequently detected compounds. Our results showed that people at high risk for CVD showed a higher level of contamination by POPs as compared to other studies done in cohorts of Western people at no special risk of CVD. Although educational level seems to be a relevant determinant for POPs burden in our population, the main determining factor seems to be the diet. Thus, while the intake of food of animal origin was significantly associated with levels of PCBs, especially in men, the intake of vegetal-origin food was positively related to levels of organochlorine pesticides, indicating a different dietary source for these two groups of chemicals. Our results showing that subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease present elevated POPs burden might have a relevant public health impact given the generalized and difficult to avoid exposure to POPs and the elevated worldwide frequency of the CVD.