- miR-938 promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation via targeting tumor suppressor PHLPP2. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 19
- Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the development of therapy approaches, the outcome of CRC patients still is poor, understanding the b...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although the development of therapy approaches, the outcome of CRC patients still is poor, understanding the biological mechanism of CRC progression is critical to improve the treatment strategies. miRNAs regulate CRC progression, we found miR-938 was upregulated in CRC tissues and cells, MTT assay, colony formation assay and soft agar growth assay suggested miR-938 overexpression promoted CRC cell proliferation, miR-938 knockdown inhibited CRC cell proliferation. Tumor suppressor PH domain Leucine-rich-repeats Protein Phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) was a target of miR-938, miR-938 inhibited PHLPP2, luciferase activity assay suggested miR-938 directly bound to the 3'UTR of PHLPP2, meanwhile, we found miR-938 promoted c-Myc and Cyclin D1 expression, confirming miR-938 promoted CRC cell proliferation. Double knockdown of miR-938 and PHLPP2 promoted CRC cell proliferation, suggesting miR-938 promoted CRC cell proliferation by inhibiting PHLPP2.
- Impaired endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type relaxation in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 19
- Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabol...
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50-59 weeks. We investigated concentration-relaxation curves for acetylcholine (at age 50-53 weeks), NS309 (an activator of small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels) (at age 50-53 weeks), and GSK1016790A (an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4, TRPV4) (at age 58 or 59 weeks) in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin to investigate EDH-type responses in the superior mesenteric artery. Obesity, mild hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia (i.e., increased total cholesterol, triglyceride, and non-esterified fatty acids) were more frequent in OLETF rats than in age-matched LETO rats at age 50-53 weeks. Acetylcholine-, NS309-, and GSK1016790A-induced relaxations in arteries from OLETF rats were all significantly reduced compared to those in LETO rats. These results indicated that EDH-type relaxations were impaired in female OLETF rats. This novel experimental model may provide new insights into vascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome in females.
- Force development and intracellular Ca(2+) in intact cardiac muscles from gravin mutant mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 17
- Gravin (AKAP12) is an A-kinase-anchoring-protein that scaffolds protein kinase A (PKA), β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), protein phosphatase 2B and protein kinase C. Gravin facilitates β2-AR-dependent...
Gravin (AKAP12) is an A-kinase-anchoring-protein that scaffolds protein kinase A (PKA), β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR), protein phosphatase 2B and protein kinase C. Gravin facilitates β2-AR-dependent signal transduction through PKA to modulate cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and its removal positively affects cardiac contraction. Trabeculae from the right ventricles of gravin mutant (gravin-t/t) mice were employed for force determination. Simultaneously, corresponding intracellular Ca(2+) transient ([Ca(2+)]i) were measured. Twitch force (Tf)-interval relationship, [Ca(2+)]i-interval relationship, and the rate of decay of post-extrasysolic potentiation (Rf) were also obtained. Western blot analysis were performed to correlate sarcomeric protein expression with alterations in calcium cycling between the WT and gravin-t/t hearts. Gravin-t/t muscles had similar developed force compared to WT muscles despite having lower [Ca(2+)]i at any given external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]o). The time to peak force and peak [Ca(2+)]i were slower and the time to 75% relaxation was significantly prolonged in gravin-t/t muscles. Both Tf-interval and [Ca(2+)]i-interval relations were depressed in gravin-t/t muscles. Rf, however, did not change. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed decreased ryanodine receptor (RyR2) phosphorylation in gravin-t/t hearts. Gravin-t/t cardiac muscle exhibits increased force development in responsiveness to Ca(2+). The Ca(2+) cycling across the SR appears to be unaltered in gravin-t/t muscle. Our study suggests that gravin is an important component of cardiac contraction regulation via increasing myofilament sensitivity to calcium. Further elucidation of the mechanism can provide insights to role of gravin if any in the pathophysiology of impaired contractility.
- Inhibitory effects of losartan and azelnidipine on augmentation of blood pressure variability induced by angiotensin II in rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 15
- Increased blood pressure variability has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently we reported that continuous infusion of angiotensin II not only elevated blo...
Increased blood pressure variability has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recently we reported that continuous infusion of angiotensin II not only elevated blood pressure level, but also increased blood pressure variability in a manner assumed to be independent of blood pressure elevation in rats. In the present study, the effects of the angiotensin type I receptor blocker losartan and the calcium channel blocker azelnidipine on angiotensin II-induced blood pressure variability were examined and compared with that of the vasodilator hydralazine in rats. Nine-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously infused with 240 pmol/kg/min angiotensin II for two weeks without or with oral administration of losartan, azelnidipine, or hydralazine. Blood pressure variability was evaluated using a coefficient of variation of blood pressure recorded every 15min under an unrestrained condition via an abdominal aortic catheter by a radiotelemetry system. Treatment with losartan suppressed both blood pressure elevation and augmentation of systolic blood pressure variability in rats infused with angiotensin II at 7 and 14 days. Azelnidipine also inhibited angiotensin II-induced blood pressure elevation and augmentation of blood pressure variability; meanwhile, hydralazine attenuated the pressor effect of angiotensin II, but had no effect on blood pressure variability. In conclusion, angiotensin II augmented blood pressure variability in an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent manner, and azelnidipine suppressed angiotensin II-induced augmentation of blood pressure variability, an effect mediated by the mechanism independent of the blood pressure-lowering action.
- Inhibition effects of chlorogenic acid on benign prostatic hyperplasia in mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 14
- This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects and explore mechanisms of chlorogenic acid against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in mice. Benign prostatic hyperplasia mo...
This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects and explore mechanisms of chlorogenic acid against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in mice. Benign prostatic hyperplasia model was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (7.5mg/kg/d) consecutively for 14 d. A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups: (Group 1) normal control group, (Group 2) benign prostatic hyperplasia model control group, (Group 3) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with finasteride at a dose of 1mg/kg, (Group 4) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 0.8mg/kg (low dose group), (Group 5) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 1.6mg/kg (medium dose group) and (Group 6) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 3.2mg/kg (high dose group). Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, pick out the eyeball to get blood, then prostates were weighed and prostatic index were determined. Then the serum acid phosphatase (ACP), prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP) and typeⅡ5-alpha-reductase (SRD5A2) levels were measured and observed morphological changes of the prostate. Comparing with benign prostatic hyperplasia model group, the high and medium dose of chlorogenic acid could significantly reduce prostate index and levels of acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and typeⅡ5-alpha-reductase (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These findings were supported by histopathological observations of prostate tissues. Histopathological examination also indicated that chlorogenic acid treatment at the high and medium doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. The results indicated that chlorogenic acid exhibited restraining effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia model animals, and its mechanism might be related to inhibit typeⅡ5-alpha reductase activity.
- Effects of bilobalide, ginkgolide B and picrotoxinin on GABAA receptor modulation by structurally diverse positive modulators. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 15
- Anxiolytics and anticonvulsants generally positively modulate the action of GABA, whereas many convulsants (including the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin) negatively modulate the action of GABA...
Anxiolytics and anticonvulsants generally positively modulate the action of GABA, whereas many convulsants (including the chloride channel blocker picrotoxinin) negatively modulate the action of GABA on GABAA receptors. Like picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B, active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, have been shown to negatively modulate the action of GABA at α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors. However, unlike picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B are not known to cause convulsions. We have assessed the action of bilobalide, ginkgolide B and picrotoxinin on a range of GABAA modulators (etomidate, loreclezole, propofol, thiopentone sodium, diazepam, and allopregnanolone), using two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at recombinant α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The results indicate that bilobalide and ginkgolide B differ from picrotoxinin in their ability to inhibit the actions of a range of these structurally diverse GABAA positive modulators consistent with these modulators acting on a multiplicity of active sites associated with GABAA receptors. In the presence GABA, ginkgolide B was more potent than bilobalide in inhibiting the GABA-potentiating effect of propofol, equipotent against loreclezole and allopregnanolone, and less potent against etomidate, diazepam, and thiopentone sodium. This indicates that in comparison to picrotoxinin, bilobalide and ginkgolide B differ in their effects on the different modulators.
- Modulation by NADPH oxidase of the chronic cardiovascular and autonomic interaction between cyclosporine and NSAIDs in female rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 15
- Cyclosporine (CSA) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together to manage arthritic disorders with an immune component. Previous reports showed contrasting effects for NSAIDs on...
Cyclosporine (CSA) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used together to manage arthritic disorders with an immune component. Previous reports showed contrasting effects for NSAIDs on CSA nephrotoxicity and acute elevations in blood pressure. Both effects were ameliorated or exaggerated after selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and nonselective COX inhibition, respectively. Here we investigated: (i) the interaction of CSA with NSAIDs possessing variable COX1/COX2 selectivities on hemodynamic, left ventricular (LV) and cardiac autonomic and histologic profiles, and (ii) role of NADPH-oxidase (NOX)/Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway in the interaction. Female rats were pre-instrumented with femoral catheters and treated for 10 days with CSA (25mg/kg/day), diclofenac (nonselective NSAIDs, 1mg/kg/day), celecoxib (COX2 inhibitor, 10mg/kg/day), or their combinations. CSA-mediated hypertension was maintained upon co-administration of either NSAID whereas the concomitant reductions in time- and frequency-domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were accentuated in presence of diclofenac but not celecoxib. The isovolumic relaxation time (Τau), a measure of diastolic function, was reduced by all regimens whereas LV contractility (dP/dtmax) remained unaffected. The CSA/diclofenac regimen, but not individual treatments, increased cardiac NOX2 expression and caused more cardiac structural damage. The inhibition of NOX by diphenyleneiodonium reversed CSA/diclofenac-evoked increases in MAP, decreases in HRV and Tau, cardiac structural damage, and increased NOX2 expression. No such effects were observed after ROCK inhibition by fasudil, despite concomitant decreases in NOX2 expression. In conclusion, CSA/diclofenac-treated female rats exhibit exacerbated hemodynamic, autonomic, LV, and histopathologic disturbances via ROCK-independent NOX2 upregulation.
- Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with HBV-related chronic liver disease undergoing antiviral treatment: A preliminary study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 13
- In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, fibrosis assessment during antiviral treatment is a key step in the clinical management. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of elastography in as...
In chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, fibrosis assessment during antiviral treatment is a key step in the clinical management. Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of elastography in assessing fibrosis stage in CHB before and after two years of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUC) treatment in comparison with indirect serum markers. CHB diagnosis was made according to standard criteria. A clinical and virological evaluation was performed at baseline and again at 3, 6, 9, 12 18, and 24 months during treatment. Fibrosis was evaluated by liver biopsy, elastography and indirect serum markers. Of 75 patients, 50 had CHB, HBeAg negative and were deemed eligible for this study. Of these, 22 underwent liver biopsy. Mean histo-morphometric values of fibrotic tissue differed significantly in the stage < S3 vs. stage ≥S3: 2.01±2.62% vs. 12.85±7.31% (p=0.03), respectively. At 18 and 24 months, stiffness values were statistically reduced from those previously observed (P=0.03 and P<0.001). At 24 months the values of APRI, FIB-4 and LOK were not different from baseline values, while the value of FORNS score at 24 months was the only one statistically reduced. In two patients with fibrosis stage S3 and S6, respectively, fibrosis regressed to stage S2 and S5. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that liver histology, stiffness and FORNS score improve significantly during a long-term follow-up of HBV patients successfully treated with NUC. These results strongly suggest that the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis represents a key step in the management and treatment of chronic HBV hepatitis.
- Protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 14
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a predictive factor of death from many diseases. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene glycoside, on NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice, and further to elucidate the mechanisms underlying GA protection. GA treatment significantly reduced the relative liver weight, serum ALT, AST activities, levels of serum lipid, blood glucose and insulin. GA suppressed lipid accumulation in liver. Further mechanism investigation indicated that GA reduced hepatic lipogenesis via downregulating SREBP-1c, FAS and SCD1 expression, increased fatty acids β-oxidation via an increase in PPARα, CPT1α and ACADS, and promoted triglyceride metabolism through inducing LPL activity. Furthermore, GA reduced gluconeogenesis through repressing PEPCK and G6Pase, and increased glycogen synthesis through an induction in gene expression of PDase and GSK3β. In addition, GA increased insulin sensitivity through upregulating phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. In conclusion, GA produces protective effect against NAFLD, due to regulation of genes involved in lipid, glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.
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- Dihydromyricetin attenuated Ang II induced cardiac fibroblasts proliferation related to inhibitory of oxidative stress. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2017 Apr 13
- Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is one of the most important flavonoids in vine tea, which showed several pharmacological effects. However, information about the potential role of DMY on angiotensin II (Ang I...
Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is one of the most important flavonoids in vine tea, which showed several pharmacological effects. However, information about the potential role of DMY on angiotensin II (Ang II) induced cardiac fibroblasts proliferation remains unknown. In the present study, cardiac fibroblasts isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with different concentrations of DMY (0- 320μM) for 4h, or DMY (80μM) for different time (0-24h), followed by Ang II (100nM) stimulation for 24h, Then number of cardiac fibroblasts and content of hydroxyproline was measured. The level of cellular reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde (MDA), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were also evaluated. Expression of type I, type III collagen, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), p22(phox) (one vital subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinuclectide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase), SOD and thioredoxin (Trx) were detected with real time PCR or/and western blot. We found that pre-incubation with DMY (20μM, 40μM, 80μM) for 4h, 12h or 24h attenuated the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts induced by Ang II. Expression of type I and type III collagen, as well as α-SMA were inhibited by DMY at both mRNA and protein level. DMY also significantly decreased cellular reactive oxygen species production and MDA level, while increased the SOD activity and T-AOC. DMY suppressed p22(phox), while enhanced antioxidant SOD and Trx expression in Ang II stimulated cardiac fibroblasts. Thus, dihydromyricetin attenuated Ang II induced cardiac fibroblasts proliferation related to inhibitory of oxidative stress.