- High glucose induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 24; 102(3):377-383
- CONCLUSIONS: High glucose could induce HUVEC cells to undergo EndMT. NAC and ERK signaling pathway may play important role in the regulation of the TGF-β1 biosynthesis during high glucose-induced EndMT.
- Fullerenol nanoparticles prevents doxorubicin-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 16; 102(2):360-369
- Doxorubicin (DOX), commonly used antineoplastic agent, affects bone marrow, intestinal tract and heart, but it also has some hepatotoxic effects. Main mechanism of its toxicity is the production of f...
Doxorubicin (DOX), commonly used antineoplastic agent, affects bone marrow, intestinal tract and heart, but it also has some hepatotoxic effects. Main mechanism of its toxicity is the production of free reactive oxygen species. Polyhidroxilated C60 fullerene derivatives, fullerenol nanoparticles (FNP), act as free radical scavengers in in vitro systems. The aim of the study was to investigate potential FNP protective role against DOX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into five groups: (1) 0.9% NaCl (control), (2) 100mg/kg ip FNP, (3) 10mg/kg DOX iv, (4) 50mg/kg ip FNP 30min before 10mg/kg iv DOX, (5) 100mg/kg ip FNP 30min before 10mg/kg iv DOX. A general health condition, body and liver weight, TBARS level and antioxidative enzyme activity, as well as pathohistological examination of the liver tissue were conducted on days 2 and 14 of the study. FNP, applied alone, did not alter any examinated parameters. However, when used as a pretreatment it significantly increased survival rate, body and liver weight, and decreased TBARS level, antioxidative enzyme activity and hepatic damage score in DOX-treated rats. FNP administered at a dose of 100mg/kg significantly attenuated effects of doxorubicin administered in a single high dose in rats, concerning general condition, body and liver weight, lipid peroxidation level and antioxidative enzyme activity as well as structural alterations of the hepatic tissue.
- -Gingerol, a major phenolic constituent of ginger root, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 16; 102(2):370-376
- The ginger rhizome is rich in bioactive compounds, including -gingerol, -gingerol, and -gingerol; however, to date, most research on the anti-cancer activities of gingerols have focused on ...
The ginger rhizome is rich in bioactive compounds, including -gingerol, -gingerol, and -gingerol; however, to date, most research on the anti-cancer activities of gingerols have focused on -gingerol. In this study, we compared -gingerol with -gingerol and -gingerol in terms of their ability to inhibit the growth of human and mouse mammary carcinoma cells. A colorimetric assay based on the enzymatic reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide revealed that -gingerol was more potent than -gingerol and at least as potent as -gingerol for the inhibition of triple-negative human (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) and mouse (4T1, E0771) mammary carcinoma cell growth. Further investigation of -gingerol showed that it suppressed the growth of estrogen receptor-bearing (MCF-7, T47D) and HER2-overexpressing (SKBR3) breast cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of -gingerol on the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells was associated with a reduction in the number of rounds of cell division and evidence of S phase-cell cycle arrest, as well as induction of apoptosis due to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial cytochrome c and SMAC/DIABLO into the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, killing of MDA-MB-231 cells by -gingerol was not affected by a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) or an anti-oxidant (N-acetylcysteine), suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of -gingerol did not require caspase activation or the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that further investigation of -gingerol is warranted for its possible use in the treatment of breast cancer.
- Gli1 expression in cancer stem-like cells predicts poor prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 09; 102(2):347-353
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Gli1 may be a potential LSCC stem cell marker and an independent indicator of poor prognosis for patients with LSCC.
- Effects of obesity on IL-33/ST2 system in heart, adipose tissue and liver: study in the experimental model of Zucker rats. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 06; 102(2):354-359
- Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) mediates the effect of Interleukin-33 (IL-33). Few data are reported on the relationship between IL-33/ST2 and obesity. We aimed to investigate effects of obesit...
Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) mediates the effect of Interleukin-33 (IL-33). Few data are reported on the relationship between IL-33/ST2 and obesity. We aimed to investigate effects of obesity on IL-33/ST2 system in heart, adipose tissue and liver in a rodent model of obesity. The relationship of cardiac expression of IL-33/ST2 system with natriuretic peptides (NPs) system and inflammatory mediators was also studied. mRNA expression of IL-33/ST2 system was evaluated in cardiac, adipose and hepatic biopsies from obese Zucker rats (O) and controls (CO). Expression levels of sST2 was significantly lower in O rats compared with CO (p<0.05) in all tissues. Besides, the mRNA levels of IL-33 decreased significant in fat of O respect to CO, while, expression levels of ST2L was significantly higher in liver of CO than in O. A strong relationship of IL-33/ST2 with NPs and classical inflammatory mediators was observed in cardiac tissue. Expression of sST2 in cardiac, adipose and liver tissue decreased in O compared with controls, suggesting an involvement for IL-33/ST2 system in molecular mechanisms of obesity. The strong relationships with NP systems and inflammatory mediators could suggest an involvement for IL-33/ST2 in molecular pathways leading to cardiac dysfunction and inflammation associated with obesity.
- Early induction of NRF2 antioxidant pathway by RHBDF2 mediates rapid cutaneous wound healing. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 06; 102(2):337-346
- Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechan...
Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2(cub/cub)) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2(cub/cub) mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2(cub/cub) and Rhbdf2(+/+) mice at 0h, 15min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2(cub/cub) mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds.
- Evaluation of the Ion Torrent PGM sequencing workflow for the routine rapid detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Mar 02; 102(2):314-320
- CONCLUSIONS: The Ion Torrent PGM NGS approach in BRCA1/2 germline mutation identification is highly sensitive, easy to use, faster and cheaper than traditional approaches. Therefore, according to other recently published works, we highly recommend this system for routine diagnostic testing on BRCA1/2 genes, along with Sanger confirmation of the called variants, and support the usefulness of the approach also in other routine genetic analysis.
- Genetically confirmed thanatophoric dysplasia with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutation. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Feb 27; 102(2):290-295
- Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), the most common lethal skeletal dysplasia, is a de novo genetic disease caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. "Thanatophoric" mea...
Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), the most common lethal skeletal dysplasia, is a de novo genetic disease caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. "Thanatophoric" means "dead bearing" in Greek. Because FGFR3 is the main modulator of bone maturation, typical features of TD include short extremities, curved femur, clover-leaf skull, small narrow chest, and platyspondyly. TD can be classified into two subgroups according to the morphologic findings, with prominent curved femur suggesting type I TD (TD 1) and with marked clover-leaf skull and relatively straight long bones, favoring type II TD (TD 2). However, considering the genetic profiles, TD 1 and TD 2 could be confidently delineated. Here, we report five genotype-phenotype correlated autopsy cases of TD. Five cases had stigmata of TD on antenatal ultrasonography. Terminations were done at gestational age 16 to 28weeks, after family consultation. In autopsy, all fetuses showed short limbs and clover-leaf skull. The microscopic examination of the bones showed disorganized growth plate, consistent with TD. However, some differences existed in gross and microscopic findings between cases. In genetic analyses, three cases revealed missense mutation of Y373C, while the remaining two cases had missense mutation of S371C and S249C each. They were hot spot mutations of TD 1. A correlation between genotype and phenotype was not apparent due to the limited number of the cases. Therefore, a molecular work up to identify the mutation of FGFR3 is indispensable for TD diagnosis in the era of precision medicine for genetic consultation and future targeted therapy.
- Comparison of FFPE histological versus LBP cytological samples for HPV detection and typing in cervical cancer. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Feb 27; 102(2):321-326
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with cervical cancer. This study analyzed HPV genotype prevalence in 75 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with cervical cancer. This study analyzed HPV genotype prevalence in 75 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer. Genotype prevalence was assessed using Reverse Blot Assay (REBA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which target the HPV L1 and HPV E6/E7 genes, respectively. HPV DNA chip tests were also performed using liquid based preparation (LBP) cytological samples from the same patients who provided the FFPE histological samples. We observed a slight difference in HPV genotype distribution as assessed by DNA chip versus REBA. One possible explanation for this difference is that normal regions could be mixed with lesion regions when cytological samples are extracted from each patient with cancer. For the detection of moderate dysplasia, the main target of diagnosis, this difference is anticipated to be greater. We also made several unexpected observations. For example, HPV multi-infection was not detected. Moreover, the rate of HPV positivity varied radically depending on the cancer origin, e.g. squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma. Our results imply that it is important to determine whether cytological specimens are suitable for HPV genotyping analysis and cervical cancer diagnosis. Future research on the mechanisms underlying cervical cancer pathogenesis is also necessary.
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- Proteomic and histopathological characterization of the interface between oral squamous cell carcinoma invasion fronts and non-cancerous epithelia. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Pathol 2017 Feb 27; 102(2):327-336
- Oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are frequently associated with pre-invasive lesions including carcinoma in-situ (CIS), and CISs further form lateral interfaces against surrounding normal or dysp...
Oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are frequently associated with pre-invasive lesions including carcinoma in-situ (CIS), and CISs further form lateral interfaces against surrounding normal or dysplastic epithelia (ND). At the interface where keratin (K) 17 positive (+) SCC/CIS cells are in contact with K13+ ND cells, "cell competition" must be evoked between two such different cell types. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the histopathology of the SCC/CIS-ND interface and to determine protein profiles around the interface by proteomics. A total of 112 lateral interfaces were collected from 55 CIS and 57 SCC foci, and they were investigated by immunohistochemistry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The interfaces were morphologically classified into three types: vertical, oblique, and convex. There were several cellular changes characteristic to the interface, including apoptosis and hyaline bodies, which were more emphasized in SCC/CIS sides. The results suggested that ND cells were winners of cell competition against SCC/CIS cells. Then, the interfaces were divided into four vertical segments, and each segment was separately laser-microdissected from tissue sections with immunostaining for K13 or K17; the four segments included SCC/CIS away from (#1) or adjacent to (#2) the interface, and ND adjacent to (#3) or away from (#4) the interface. Proteome analyses revealed approximately 4000 proteins from SCC/CIS sides [#1 and #2] and 2800 proteins from ND sides [#3 and #4]. We quantitatively selected the top 25 proteins including ladinin-1 or interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein, which were most contrastively increased or decreased in SCC/CIS or ND sides, respectively, and their specific immunohistochemical expression modes were confirmed in tissue sections as well as in cultured SCC cells. These molecules should be involved in the cellular crosstalk toward cell competition at the lateral interface of oral SCC/CIS and would be new candidates for histopathological distinction of oral malignancies.