- Pulse pressure variation using a novel smartphone application (Capstesia) versus invasive pulse contour analysis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a secondary analysis focusing on clinical decision making. [Letter]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 19
- Dynamic properties of glucose complexity during the course of critical illness: a pilot study. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 19
- Methods to control the blood glucose (BG) levels of patients in intensive care units (ICU) improve the outcomes. The development of continuous BG levels monitoring devices has also permitted to optim…
Methods to control the blood glucose (BG) levels of patients in intensive care units (ICU) improve the outcomes. The development of continuous BG levels monitoring devices has also permitted to optimize these processes. Recently it was shown that a complexity loss of the BG signal is linked to poor clinical outcomes. Thus, it becomes essential to decipher this relation to design efficient BG level control methods. In previous studies the BG signal complexity was calculated as a single index for the whole ICU stay. Although, these approaches did not grasp the potential variability of the BG signal complexity. Therefore, we setup this pilot study using a continuous monitoring of central venous BG levels in ten critically ill patients (EIRUS platform, Maquet Critical CARE AB, Solna, Sweden). Data were processed and the complexity was assessed by the detrended fluctuation analysis and multiscale entropy (MSE) methods. Finally, recordings were split into 24 h overlapping intervals and a MSE analysis was applied to each of them. The MSE analysis on time intervals revealed an entropy variation and allowed periodic BG signal complexity assessments. To highlight differences of MSE between each time interval we calculated the MSE complexity index defined as the area under the curve. This new approach could pave the way to future studies exploring new strategies aimed at restoring blood glucose complexity during the ICU stay.
- Acceptance of a propofol and remifentanil infusion dosing algorithm to optimize postoperative emergence and analgesia. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 13
- We implemented a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) based optimization algorithm recommending intraoperative Remifentanil and Propofol infusion rates to minimize time to emergence and maximize t…
We implemented a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) based optimization algorithm recommending intraoperative Remifentanil and Propofol infusion rates to minimize time to emergence and maximize the duration of analgesia in a clinical setting. This feasibility study tested the clinical acceptance of the optimization algorithm's recommendations during scoliosis surgical repair for 14 patients. Anesthesiologist accepted 359/394 (91%) of the recommendations given on the basis of the optimization algorithm. While following the optimization's recommendations the anesthesiologist decreased Propofol infusions from an average of 164-135 mcg/kg/min [p = 0.002] and increased Remifentanil infusions from an average of 0.22-0.30 mcg/kg/min [p = 0.004]. The anesthesiologists appeared to accept and follow the recommendations from a PK/PD based optimization algorithm.
- Optimizing intraoperative administration of propofol, remifentanil, and fentanyl through pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic simulations to increase the postoperative duration of analgesia. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 12
- Titrating an intraoperative anesthetic to achieve the postoperative goals of rapid emergence and prolonged analgesia can be difficult because of inter-patient variability and the need to provide intr…
Titrating an intraoperative anesthetic to achieve the postoperative goals of rapid emergence and prolonged analgesia can be difficult because of inter-patient variability and the need to provide intraoperative sedation and analgesia. Modeling pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anesthetic administrations estimates drug concentrations and predicted responses to stimuli during anesthesia. With utility of these PK/PD models we created an algorithm to optimize the intraoperative dosing regimen. We hypothesized the optimization algorithm would find a dosing regimen that would increase the postoperative duration of analgesia, not increase the time to emergence, and meet the intraoperative requirements of sedation and analgesia. To evaluate these hypotheses we performed a simulation study on previously collected anesthesia data. We developed an algorithm to recommend different intraoperative dosing regimens for improved post-operative results. To test the post-operative results of the algorithm we tested it on previously collected anesthesia data. An anesthetic dataset of 21 patients was obtained from a previous study from an anesthetic database at the University of Utah. Using the anesthetic records from these surgeries we modeled 21 patients using the same patient demographics and anesthetic requirements as the dataset. The anesthetic was simulated for each of the 21 patients with three different dosing regimens. The three dosing regimens are: from the anesthesiologist as recorded in the dataset (control group), from the algorithm in the clinical scenario one (test group), and from the algorithm in the clinical scenario two (test group). We created two clinical scenarios for the optimization algorithm to perform; one with normal general anesthesia constraints and goals, and a second condition where a delayed time to emergence is allowed to further maximize the duration of analgesia. The algorithm was evaluated by comparing the post-operative results of the control group to each of the test groups. Comparing results between the clinical scenario 1 dosing to the actual dosing showed a median increase in the duration of analgesia by 6 min and the time to emergence by 0.3 min. This was achieved by decreasing the intraoperative remifentanil infusion rate, increased the fentanyl dosing regimen, and not changing the propofol infusion rate. Comparing results between the clinical scenario 2 dosing to the actual dosing showed a median increase in the duration of analgesia by 26 min and emergence by 1.5 min. To dosing regimen from clinical scenario 2 greatly increased the fentanyl dosing regimen and greatly decreased the remifentanil infusion rate with no change to the propofol infusion rate. The results from this preliminary analysis of the optimization algorithm appear to imply that it can operate as intended. However a clinical study is warranted to determine to what extent the optimization algorithm determined optimal dosing regimens can maximize the postoperative duration of analgesia without delaying the time to emergence in a clinical setting.
- Journal of clinical monitoring and computing end of year summary 2018: hemodynamic monitoring and management. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019; 33(2):211-222
- Hemodynamic management is a mainstay of patient care in the operating room and intensive care unit (ICU). In order to optimize patient treatment, researchers investigate monitoring technologies, card…
Hemodynamic management is a mainstay of patient care in the operating room and intensive care unit (ICU). In order to optimize patient treatment, researchers investigate monitoring technologies, cardiovascular (patho-) physiology, and hemodynamic treatment strategies. The Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing (JCMC) is a well-established and recognized platform for publishing research in this field. In this review, we highlight recent advancements and summarize selected papers published in the JCMC in 2018 related to hemodynamic monitoring and management.
- Transcranial motor evoked potentials electrically elicited by multi-train stimulation can reflect isolated nerve root injury more precisely than those by conventional multi-pulse stimulation: an experimental study in rats. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 05
- Nerve root injury can occur in complex spine surgeries. Recording transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs) has been the most popular method to monitor motor function during surgery. However, TcM…
Nerve root injury can occur in complex spine surgeries. Recording transcranial motor-evoked potentials (TcMEPs) has been the most popular method to monitor motor function during surgery. However, TcMEPs cannot detect single nerve root injury satisfactorily. Recently, multi-train stimulation (MTS) was demonstrated to effectively enhance TcMEPs. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of TcMEPs elicited by MTS for intraoperative nerve root monitoring. TcMEPs were recorded from the quadriceps femoris (QF) and gastrocnemius (GC) muscles in the hindlimbs of 20 rats before and after transection of the nerve root at L6 (dominant root innervating the GC). For MTS, a multipulse (train) stimulus was delivered repeatedly at 5 Hz. The change ratio of the amplitude after transection of the nerve root was compared between MTS and conventional single-train stimulation (STS). The change in TcMEP amplitudes for QF after transection of the nerve root at L6 was 97.8 ± 12.2% with MTS and 100.1 ± 7.2% with STS (p = 0.496), whereas that for GC was 40.6 ± 11.5% with MTS and 64.8 ± 8.8% with STS (p < 0.001). MTS could improve the ability to detect isolated nerve root injury in intraoperative TcMEP monitoring.
- Somatosensory evoked potential loss due to intraoperative pulse lavage during spine surgery: case report and review of signal change management. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 05
- Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) includes various neurophysiologic tests which assess the functional integrity of the central and peripheral nervous systems during surgical procedure…
Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) includes various neurophysiologic tests which assess the functional integrity of the central and peripheral nervous systems during surgical procedures which place these structures at risk for iatrogenic injury. The rational for using IONM is to provide timely feedback of changes in neural function to enable the reversal of such insult before the development of irreversible neural injury. There are various causes of intraoperative loss of neuromonitoring signals and it is important to systematically rule out all possible causes quickly and thoroughly in order to target the cause of signal loss, correct it and take measures to prevent the same in the future. One such rare cause, is targeted and pressurized cold (room temperature) irrigation of the surgical site, which may induce irritation and vasospasm leading to ischemia of the affected portion of the spinal cord, hence leading to signal changes. We present this case to stress the importance of having knowledgeable members of the team who are well acquainted with all aspects of monitoring in close proximity to the operating room, so as to minimize troubleshooting time. Furthermore, we suggest the use of warm (body temperature) saline during irrigation to the surgical site, especially when using pressurized irrigation systems.
- Postoperative desaturation and bradypnea after general anesthesia in non-ICU patients: a retrospective evaluation. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Mar 02
- Respiratory depression, presenting as desaturation and bradypnea, is common during the early postoperative period. However, it has not been evaluated by appropriate monitoring. The purpose of the pre…
Respiratory depression, presenting as desaturation and bradypnea, is common during the early postoperative period. However, it has not been evaluated by appropriate monitoring. The purpose of the present study was to identify the incidence and predictors of desaturation and bradypnea following general anesthesia, using a continuous and centralized monitoring system, in non-ICU patients who did not have serious complications and did not undergo major surgery. Patients were connected to a continuous and centralized monitoring system via a pulse oximeter and respiratory rate sensor for at least 8 h after extubation. We assessed the incidence and risk factors for desaturation (SpO2 < 90% for > 10 s) and bradypnea (respiratory rate < 8 breaths/min for > 2 min) events. We retrospectively collected the clinical data of 1064 adult patients in the study. The incidences of desaturation and bradypnea were 12.1% and 5.1%, respectively. Most desaturation events occurred after the termination of oxygen administration. The greatest incidence of bradypnea was within the first hour after surgery, reducing over time. Analysis revealed that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06; p < 0.001), BMI (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18; p < 0.001) and current smoking (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.12-3.42; p = 0.023) were significant risk factors for desaturation. Sleep apnea syndrome (OR 4.23, 95% CI 1.09-13.5; p = 0.021) and postoperative opioid administration (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.44-5.20; p = 0.002) were significantly associated with bradypnea. Age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07; p = 0.010) and postoperative opioid administration (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.22-7.87; p = 0.019) showed a significant association with the occurrence of both desaturation and bradypnea. This study demonstrated the incidence and predictors of postoperative desaturation and bradypnea, and suggests the need for monitoring oxygen saturation and respiratory rate for at least 8 h after surgery in non-ICU patients. Use of monitoring systems might provide a safety net for postoperative patients.
- Two-site regional oxygen saturation and capnography monitoring during resuscitation after cardiac arrest in a swine pediatric ventricular fibrillatory arrest model. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Feb 28
- To investigate the use of two-site regional oxygen saturations (rSO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) to assess the effectiveness of resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). E…
To investigate the use of two-site regional oxygen saturations (rSO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) to assess the effectiveness of resuscitation and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Eight mechanically ventilated juvenile swine underwent 28 ventricular fibrillatory arrests with open cardiac massage. Cardiac massage was administered to achieve target pulmonary blood flow (PBF) as a percentage of pre-cardiac arrest baseline. Non-invasive data, including, EtCO2, cerebral rSO2 (C-rSO2) and renal rSO2 (R-rSO2) were collected continuously. Our data demonstrate the ability to measure both rSO2 and EtCO2 during CPR and after ROSC. During resuscitation EtCO2 had a strong correlation with goal CO with r = 0.83 (p < 0.001) 95% CI [0.67-0.92]. Both C-rSO2 and R-rSO2 had moderate and statistically significant correlation with CO with r = 0.52 (p = 0.003) 95% CI (0.19-0.74) and 0.50 (p = 0.004) 95% CI [0.16-0.73]. The AUCs for sudden increase of EtCO2, C-rSO2, and R-rSO2 at ROSC were 0.86 [95% CI, 0.77-0.94], 0.87 [95% CI, 0.8-0.94], and 0.98 [95% CI, 0.96-1.00] respectively. Measurement of continuous EtCO2 and rSO2 may be used during CPR to ensure effective chest compressions. Moreover, both rSO2 and EtCO2 may be used to detect ROSC in a swine pediatric ventricular fibrillatory arrest model.
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- Philips Intellivue NMT module: precision and performance improvements to meet the clinical requirements of neuromuscular block management. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Monit Comput 2019 Feb 26
- The variability or inaccuracy of acceleromyographic measurements could interfere with the interpretation of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio during neuromuscular block (NMB) recovery. This study evaluat…
The variability or inaccuracy of acceleromyographic measurements could interfere with the interpretation of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio during neuromuscular block (NMB) recovery. This study evaluated the precision and performance of the Philips Intellivue NMT module (NMT) before (part 1) and after (part 2) several technical upgrades (i.e., firmware upgrade, new cable, and hand adapter) that were recently available. Two cohorts of 30 patients who were scheduled to undergo rhino/septoplasty under general anesthesia were included in the study. TOF ratios were recorded simultaneously every 15 s on both hands with the NMT and a TOF-Watch SX installed inside a SL TOF-Tube (TWX). Before rocuronium was administered and once final responses were stabilized, the average of the four successive measurements that determined the baselines and repeatability coefficients were compared using a z test. Simultaneous measurements were recorded at different NMB stages: onset, depth of NMB after intubation, when TWX recovered TOF count 2, TOF ratios 0.5 and 0.9, and when NMT recovered TOF ratio 0.9. The results were compared using a Student t test; p < 0.05 was considered significant. The NMT repeatability coefficients obtained in part 1 were significantly higher than with the TWX, they were significantly lower in part 2. Initially, the NMT significantly overestimated NMB recovery at every stage. Conversely, in the second part of the study, no difference reached statistical significance. With the recent upgrades and the new hand adapter, the NMT provided similar results compared with the TWX, Their implementation should be recommended in clinical practice.