- A Knowledge Framework for the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Implications for Music Therapy. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Oct 31
- Current music therapy studies suggest great diversity and complexity in research approaches. Authors note the importance of increased clarity in many facets of research reporting. Some authors have a...
Current music therapy studies suggest great diversity and complexity in research approaches. Authors note the importance of increased clarity in many facets of research reporting. Some authors have also encouraged increased understanding and reporting of the philosophical underpinnings of knowledge generation in research. However, like other social science fields, we appear to have struggled to provide clear frameworks that can address such diverse and complex approaches to research. In this article, I offer one way to resolve such struggles by presenting a re-envisioned version of Michael Crotty's knowledge framework. I seek to meet this purpose through the following objectives: (a) discuss philosophy and its role in research; (b) detail challenges related to understanding and reporting epistemological underpinnings; and (c) present a modified version of Crotty's knowledge framework to promote understanding and reporting, including visuals, brief examples, and resources. I also re-envision the framework to address potential challenges to typologies and to maintain the spirit of Michael Crotty's work. Modifications promote the dynamic and interactive relationship between and within epistemological positions, theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and methods, while also integrating surrounding factors: research question, researcher, context, and participant. I dialogue with related literature on knowledge generation, show how some recent music therapy research engages with the knowledge framework, discuss methodologies and approaches that may not align with the knowledge framework, offer resources for further reference and learning, and describe implications for researchers, research consumers, and the ongoing body of knowledge.
- A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of an Online Pre-Composed Receptive Music Experience for Students Coping with Stress and Anxiety. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Oct 18
- College/university students face many stressors as they balance their studies, work, personal relationships, and personal/family expectations. Music therapy students have additional stressors related...
College/university students face many stressors as they balance their studies, work, personal relationships, and personal/family expectations. Music therapy students have additional stressors related to academic, musical, and clinical development. College/university students have increased mental health needs compared to previous generations, with volume impacting institutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of an online receptive music experience for music therapy students' stress and anxiety levels, and also to examine if a particular musical element was perceived as more beneficial in decreasing stress and anxiety. Twenty-three participants (undergraduate and graduate-equivalency music therapy students) engaged in a study offered online. Measures included the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Stress Overload Scale (SOS), and a post-experience survey about musical element effectiveness. Results indicated that the receptive music experience elicited a significant decrease in students' stress and anxiety levels. A subscale analysis of the SOS indicated that participants had a significant decrease in personal vulnerability, and an overall decrease in event load, though this decrease was not significant. Participants' reflections about the musical elements indicated that melody was most effective and instrumentation was least effective, with groups of elements also indicated. Pilot study results support further research investigating the use of an online receptive music experience for students, professionals, and music therapy clients as a way to manage acute stress.
- A Survey of Music Therapy Methods on Adolescent Inpatient Mental Health Units. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Oct 18
- Mental health settings are common workplaces for music therapists. Few studies have examined the clinical practice and effectiveness of music therapy in adolescent inpatient mental health settings. A...
Mental health settings are common workplaces for music therapists. Few studies have examined the clinical practice and effectiveness of music therapy in adolescent inpatient mental health settings. Additionally, there is little research that discusses how music therapy is implemented and how patient needs are addressed in sessions. The primary purpose of this study was to survey music therapists working in inpatient adolescent mental health treatment regarding their clinical practice to (1) identify goals addressed in music therapy sessions and (2) examine music therapy interventions utilized in adolescent inpatient mental health units. Participants included board-certified music therapists in the United States who were members of the Certification Board for Music Therapists and reported as working or having worked with adolescents in inpatient mental health settings (N = 64). The survey contained 35 questions about demographics, session structure, goals addressed, interventions utilized, and perceptions of the effectiveness of music therapy. The most commonly addressed goals were to improve self-expression, improve self-esteem, increase positive socialization, and increase knowledge and use of coping skills. The most commonly utilized interventions included song discussion, followed by lyric analysis, and songwriting/song composition. In clinical practice, music therapists utilize many different interventions to address a wide range of goals. Goals and interventions utilized are influenced by patient diagnoses, session structure, length of stay, strength of rapport with patients, and theoretical orientation.
- Feasibility of the Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation (MCRF) Intervention for Preschooler Emotion Regulation Development: A Mixed Methods Study. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Oct 13
- Emotion regulation (ER) describes the goal-directed ability to manage and shape the dynamics and timing of one's emotional experiences and expressions, an ability that develops early in life. Though ...
Emotion regulation (ER) describes the goal-directed ability to manage and shape the dynamics and timing of one's emotional experiences and expressions, an ability that develops early in life. Though development of maladaptive ER skills can significantly impact developmental outcomes, interventions for at-risk children are limited. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the Musical Contour Regulation Facilitation (MCRF) intervention, a multi-session strategy for promoting ER development in preschoolers, with a focus on typically developing preschoolers as a preliminary exploration of a novel intervention. Eight typically developing children (M = 3.88 years) participated in the 11-session MCRF intervention across four weeks. ER-related behaviors were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and teacher interviews were conducted post-intervention. Teachers noted positive change in children's behavior following the intervention in terms of their emotion skills and peer interactions. Furthermore, they believed in the importance of music for developmental outcomes. Large and medium effects sizes in ER-related abilities were noted, and acceptability and integration of the intervention into the regular daycare environment was supported by interview data. Findings support further refinement and examination of the MCRF intervention in children who are at risk.
- Music for Relaxation: A Comparison Across Two Age Groups. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Oct 01
- There are currently many types of music sold commercially that are branded as "relaxation aids." However, the claims that the music can induce psychological and physical relaxation are rarely validat...
There are currently many types of music sold commercially that are branded as "relaxation aids." However, the claims that the music can induce psychological and physical relaxation are rarely validated on an empirical basis. This study investigated the effectiveness of a particular type of "relaxation" music that we call Meditative Binaural Music (MBM), which incorporates binaurally recorded sounds, binaural beats, a slow tempo, and gradual changes. The effect of listening to MBM with and without binaural beats on self-reported emotion state and measured physiological arousal was compared to the effect of listening to classical music previously categorized as "low" or "high" in emotional arousal. Individuals from two age groups were recruited. The effect of listening to MBM was comparable to listening to calm classical music. The changes in self-reported arousal were more pronounced for the younger age group, for whom the MBM including binaural beats was significantly more calming than listening to low-arousal classical music. The older age group showed stronger differences in positivity evaluations, evaluating low-arousal classical music as most comforting, followed by MBM. These results indicate that MBM may effectively contribute to relaxation, but in a way that differs depending on age.
- Dyadic Drum Playing and Social Skills: Implications for Rhythm-Mediated Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Sep 08; 55(3):340-375
- Current perspectives on social skills development of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) emphasize the interplay between motor and social skills. Given the evidence supporting this relati...
Current perspectives on social skills development of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) emphasize the interplay between motor and social skills. Given the evidence supporting this relationship, studies are needed to explore the potential benefit of rhythmic behaviors to improve social skills in children with ASD. The purpose of this two-part study was to confirm the relationship between dyadic drum playing and social skills and to further develop a rhythm-mediated music therapy intervention for improving the social skills of children with ASD. In Study 1, we conducted a factor analysis to examine whether dyadic drum playing was related to social skills in 42 children with typical development and 10 children with high-functioning ASD. In Study 2, we conducted a preliminary pilot of a rhythm-mediated music therapy intervention with eight children with ASD and measured changes in social skills (e.g., imitation and engagement in joint action with others) and dyadic drum playing behaviors. Study 1 findings included identification of four factors related to dyadic drum playing. The presence of rhythmic cueing and tempo adjustment correlated with social skills, providing a strong rationale for the use of dyadic drum playing to address social skills. In Study 2, participants showed decreased asynchrony when tapping with a partner at adjusted tempi after the rhythm-mediated intervention. Furthermore, participants showed greater engagement in joint action following the intervention. This study supports potential benefit of the rhythm-mediated intervention using dyadic drum playing and provides preliminary evidence strengthening its use in the social domain for individuals with ASD.
- Indirect Music Therapy Practice and Skill-Sharing in Dementia Care. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Sep 08; 55(3):255-279
- Public interest in the benefits of music for people with dementia has rapidly increased in recent years. In addition to clinical work with clients, music therapists are often required to support and ...
Public interest in the benefits of music for people with dementia has rapidly increased in recent years. In addition to clinical work with clients, music therapists are often required to support and train staff, families, and volunteers and skill-share some music therapeutic skills. Six music therapy researchers from six countries agreed it was timely to organize a roundtable and share their indirect music therapy practice and examples of skill-sharing in dementia care. This article was developed following the roundtable at the World Congress of Music Therapy in 2017 and further discussion among the authors. This process highlighted the diversity and complexity of indirect music therapy practice and skill-sharing, but some common components emerged, including: 1) the importance of making clinical decisions about when direct music therapy is necessary and when indirect music therapy is appropriate, 2) supporting the transition from direct music therapy to indirect music therapy, 3) the value of music therapy skill-sharing in training care home staff, 4) the need for considering potential risks and burdens of indirect music therapy practice, and 5) expanding the role of music therapist and cultivating cross-professional dialogues to support organizational changes. In indirect music therapy practice, a therapist typically works with carers and supporters to strengthen their relationships with people with dementia and help them further develop their self-awareness and sense of competence. However, the ultimate goal of indirect music therapy practice in dementia care remains the wellbeing of people living with dementia.
- Music Therapy When Death Is Imminent: A Phenomenological Inquiry. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Sep 08; 55(3):309-339
- Music therapists have described powerful case examples and personal experiences of providing music therapy for clients who are actively dying that suggest a complex experience that merits further exp...
Music therapists have described powerful case examples and personal experiences of providing music therapy for clients who are actively dying that suggest a complex experience that merits further exploration. This phenomenological study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the lived experience of music therapists working with clients who are actively dying. Four music therapists (2 female, 2 male), with an average of 10 years' hospice care experience, participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach (Moustakas, 1994). Ten themes were distilled from the interviews and grouped into four categories: ongoing assessment, intuitive processes, countertransference, and the role of aesthetics and transformation. Participants described a flexible, dynamic clinical and personal process informed by ongoing assessment. These findings point to the importance of further discussion surrounding the clinical implications of the music therapist's internal experience and the role of assessment, intuition, and aesthetics in hospice music therapy.
- Corrigendum. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Sep 08; 55(3):381
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- Reliability of the Music in Everyday Life (MEL) Scale: A Parent-Report Assessment for Children on the Autism Spectrum. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Music Ther 2018 Jun 07; 55(2):133-155
- CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the MEL assessment to measure the use of music in everyday life by parents with their children with autism was confirmed, filling an important gap in the availability of assessment tools.