- State variations in Medicaid enrollment and utilization of substance use services: Results from a National Longitudinal Study. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:75-86
- Medicaid enrollment varies considerably among states. This study examined the association of Medicaid enrollment with the use of substance health services in the longitudinal National Epidemiologic S...
Medicaid enrollment varies considerably among states. This study examined the association of Medicaid enrollment with the use of substance health services in the longitudinal National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions of 2001-2005. Instrumental variable methods were used to assess endogeneity of individual-level Medicaid enrollment using state-level data as instruments. Compared to the uninsured, Medicaid covered adults were more likely to use substance use disorder treatment services over the next three years. States that have opted to expand Medicaid enrollment under the Affordable Care Act will likely experience further increases in the use of these service over the coming years.
- Trends and disparities in receipt of pharmacotherapy among pregnant women in publically funded treatment programs for opioid use disorder in the United States. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:67-74
- CONCLUSIONS: Although the proportion of pregnant admissions to substance use treatment centers with OUD has increased since the mid-1990s, the proportion receiving pharmacotherapy has not changed. Significant variations in pharmacotherapy utilization exist by geography and demographic, substance use and treatment characteristics. Utilization of pharmacotherapy at publically funded treatment centers providing care for pregnant women with OUD should be expanded.
- The long-term impact of post traumatic stress disorder on recovery from heroin dependence. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:60-66
- The high prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people with heroin dependence and its impact on short term outcomes has been well established. The impact of PTSD on long-term recov...
The high prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people with heroin dependence and its impact on short term outcomes has been well established. The impact of PTSD on long-term recovery is, however, unknown. This paper examines the impact of current and lifetime PTSD on long-term recovery from heroin dependence among participants who took part in the 11-year follow-up of the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), a prospective naturalistic longitudinal study of 615 people with heroin dependence recruited from Sydney, Australia, in 2001-2002. Seventy-one percent of the cohort (n = 431) were re-interviewed 11-years post study entry. Outcomes examined included heroin and other drug use, dependence, general physical and mental health, depression, PTSD, employment, and the incidence of trauma exposure, overdose, imprisonment, and attempted suicide over the 11- year follow-up. Despite having a poorer profile at baseline, individuals with current PTSD or a history of PTSD at baseline demonstrated similar levels of improvement to those without a history of PTSD in all outcome domains across the 11-year follow-up, PTSD was associated with consistently higher levels of major depression, and attempted suicide, subsequent trauma exposure, and poorer occupational functioning across the 11-year follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of interventions aimed at occupational rehabilitation, reducing the likelihood of retraumatisation, and addressing PTSD and associated comorbidities among people with heroin dependence.
- Parenting outcomes of parenting interventions in integrated substance-use treatment programs: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:52-59
- The high prevalence of women in substance use treatment programs with children, and the co-occurring negative physical and mental health outcomes associated with substance use, led to the development...
The high prevalence of women in substance use treatment programs with children, and the co-occurring negative physical and mental health outcomes associated with substance use, led to the development of integrated substance use treatment programs that target a range of women-specific issues. Integrated programs typically offer some type of parenting component, although the level of parenting services varies widely. Existing reviews have found positive child and parent outcomes following integrated treatment programs in general, although studies were not selected on the basis of whether they included parenting interventions. Due to the large percentage of substance using parents and research that parenting interventions contribute to decreased maternal substance use, this critical review examines parental outcomes of published studies on integrated programs that specifically include a parenting intervention component, as well as moderators of parenting and parental substance use/relapse. Across the 15 studies identified, this systematic review primarily focused on 8 parenting outcomes, including program retention, substance use, parenting stress, psychosocial adjustment, depression, child abuse potential, parenting behaviors, and parent-child interaction; as well as 5 additional secondary outcomes. The review discusses results on each of these outcomes, as well as retention rates across the parenting interventions.
- Effects of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder on functional outcomes: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:28-51
- This systematic review synthesizes evidence on the effects of Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) on functional outcomes, including cognitive (e.g., memory), physical (e...
This systematic review synthesizes evidence on the effects of Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD) on functional outcomes, including cognitive (e.g., memory), physical (e.g., fatigue), occupational (e.g., return to work), social/behavioral (e.g., criminal activity), and neurological (e.g., balance) function. Five databases were searched from inception to July 2017 to identify English-language controlled trials, case control studies, and cohort comparisons of one or more groups; cross-sectional studies were excluded. Two independent reviewers screened identified literature, abstracted study-level information, and assessed the quality of included studies. Meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp method for random-effects models. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. A comprehensive search followed by 1411 full text publication screenings yielded 30 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 observational studies meeting inclusion criteria. The studies reported highly diverse functional outcome measures. Only one RCT was rated as high quality, but several methodologically sound observational studies were identified. The statistical power to detect differences in functional outcomes was unclear in most studies. When compared with matched "healthy" controls with no history of substance use disorder (SUD), in two studies MAT patients had significantly poorer working memory and cognitive speed. One study found MAT patients scored worse in aggressive responding than did "healthy" controls. A large observational study found that MAT users had twice the odds of involvement in an injurious traffic accident as non-users. When compared with persons with OUD not on MAT, one cohort study found lower fatigue rates among buprenorphine-treated OUD patients. No differences were reported for occupational outcomes and results for criminal activity and other social/behavioral areas were mixed. There were few differences among MAT drug types. A pooled analysis of three RCTs found a significantly lower prevalence of fatigue with buprenorphine compared to methadone, while a meta-analysis of the same RCTs found no statistical difference in insomnia prevalence. Three RCTs that focused on cognitive function compared the effects of buprenorphine to methadone; no statistically significant differences in memory, cognitive speed and flexibility, attention, or vision were reported. The quality of evidence for most functional outcomes was rated low or very low. In sum, weaknesses in the body of evidence prevent strong conclusions about the effects of MAT for opioid use disorder on functional outcomes. Rigorous studies of functional effects would strengthen the body of literature.
- Who attends recovery high schools after substance use treatment? A descriptive analysis of school aged youth. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:20-27
- Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this s...
Recovery high schools (RHSs) are an alternative high school option for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs), designed to provide a recovery-focused learning environment. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of youth who choose to attend RHSs, and to compare them with local and national comparison samples of youth in recovery from SUDs who were not enrolled in RHSs. We conducted secondary analysis of existing data to compare characteristics of youth in three samples: (1) adolescents with SUDs who enrolled in RHSs in Minnesota, Texas, and Wisconsin after discharge from treatment (RHSs; n = 171, 51% male, 86% White, 4% African American, 5% Hispanic); (2) a contemporaneously recruited local comparison sample of students with SUDs who did not enroll in RHSs (n = 123, 60% male, 77% White, 5% African American, 12% Hispanic); and (3) a national comparison sample of U.S. adolescents receiving SUD treatment (n = 12,967, 73% male, 37% White, 15% African American, 30% Hispanic). Students enrolled in RHSs had elevated levels of risk factors for substance use and relapse relative to both the local and national comparison samples. For instance, RHS students reported higher rates of pre-treatment drug use, past mental health treatment, and higher rates of post-treatment physical health problems than adolescents in the national comparison sample. We conclude that RHSs serve a population with greater co-occurring problem severity than the typical adolescent in SUD treatment; programming offered at RHSs should attend to these complex patterns of risk factors. SUD service delivery policy should consider RHSs as an intensive recovery support model for the most high-risk students with SUDs.
- A randomized clinical trial of motivational enhancement therapy for alcohol problems in partner violent men. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:11-19
- This study examined the efficacy of brief alcohol intervention in the context of community-based treatment for partner violence. In a randomized clinical trial, 228 partner-violent men with hazardous...
This study examined the efficacy of brief alcohol intervention in the context of community-based treatment for partner violence. In a randomized clinical trial, 228 partner-violent men with hazardous or problem drinking were recruited at three Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) treatment agencies and randomly assigned to receive one of two 4-session alcohol interventions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET: N = 110) or Alcohol Education (AE: N = 118). After completing alcohol intervention, participants received standard agency counseling services for IPV. Participants completed assessments of alcohol use, drug use, and IPV at pre-treatment, post-alcohol intervention, and quarterly follow-ups for 12 months. At the end of the 4-session alcohol intervention, MET participants displayed greater acknowledgment of problems with alcohol than AE participants (Partial ή2 = 0.039, p = 0.006). Significant changes from baseline across treatment conditions (at p < 0.001) were observed for percent days of alcohol abstinence [95% empirical CI for Partial ή2 =0.226, 0.296], heavy drinking [0.292, 0.349], illicit drug use [0.096, 0.156] and partner violence [0.282, 0.334]. No significant condition differences (treatment by time interactions) were found for alcohol abstinence [95% empirical CI for Partial ή2 = 0.007, 0.036], heavy drinking [0.016, 0.055], illicit drug use [0.005, 0.035] or partner violence [0.001, 0.004]. Results encourage continued use of brief alcohol interventions in community IPV services, but do not provide evidence of a unique benefit of MET in reducing alcohol use in this population.
- A pilot trial of text-delivered peer network counseling to treat young adults with cannabis use disorder. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 89:1-10
- Approximately 1.8 million young adults aged 18 to 25 had a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) in the past year. Unfortunately, engaging young adults in treatment is very challenging. Creative approaches to ...
Approximately 1.8 million young adults aged 18 to 25 had a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) in the past year. Unfortunately, engaging young adults in treatment is very challenging. Creative approaches to treat cannabis disorders such as integrating mobile technology with evidence-based treatments are warranted. In light of these challenges, we developed a text message-delivered version of Peer Network Counseling (PNC-txt), which is a substance use intervention that focuses on peer relations. PNC-txt engages participants in 16 automated, personalized text interactions over 4weeks. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of PNC-txt against a waitlist control group with 30 treatment seeking young adults (ages 18-25) who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Self-report and urine analyses were used to test outcomes at the three-month follow-up. The PNC-txt group significantly reduced their cannabis use related problems as well as cannabis cravings, compared to the control group. PNC-txt participants also had a significantly greater percentage with urines negative for cannabis metabolites compared to controls. Moderation analysis showed that CUD severity level moderated treatment, suggesting that PNC-txt is more effective for participants with medium and high levels of CUD severity. All effect sizes ranged from medium to large. Results from this pilot trial are promising and warrant further research on PNC-txt for addressing cannabis use disorder.
- Complexities with group therapy facilitation in substance use disorder specialty treatment settings. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 88:9-17
- In spite of increased attention to research-based interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), a formidable research-practice gap impedes the implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBTs). ...
In spite of increased attention to research-based interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs), a formidable research-practice gap impedes the implementation of evidence-based treatments (EBTs). An underappreciated dimension of this gap is a mismatch in treatment modality: Whereas clinical trial and implementation research has focused primarily on individual therapy, the majority of SUD specialty treatment is in group format, with open-enrolling groups being most common. This study aims to narrow this research-practice gap by exploring clinicians' perspectives on complexities with group therapy facilitation in SUD specialty treatment settings. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 group clinicians from among three outpatient SUD specialty clinics-diverse in their operational structures, treatment philosophies, clientele, and services-located in the same Midwestern U.S. metropolitan area. Interview questions addressed organizational characteristics, services provided, group therapy curricula, and use of EBTs or other structured treatments. Clinicians emphasized the importance of having flexibility in facilitating groups, through built-in group processes and clinicians' own adaptions and accommodations; this flexibility was especially emphasized for the use of EBTs or manualized interventions. Clinicians also had difficulties with group facilitation generally, as evidenced by their reported difficulty in managing complex group dynamics, their limited group therapy experience and training, and their reliance on educational groups. We discuss specific strategies for improved innovation and implementation of EBTs for SUD group therapy.
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- A pilot study of a smartphone application supporting recovery from drug addiction. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 88:51-58
- CONCLUSIONS: This pilot demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefits to deliver mobile health intervention among participants with SUD. Further research with larger samples over a longer period of time is needed to test the effectiveness of S-Health as a self-monitoring tool supporting recovery from addiction.