- Gender differences in trends for heroin use and nonmedical prescription opioid use, 2007-2014. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018 Jan 05
- CONCLUSIONS: Trend analyses reveal a linear increase in heroin use and a quadratic decline in nonmedical prescription opioid use at the population level. The differential rates of change between men and women in use of both opioids highlight the need for comprehensive, gender-sensitive approaches to prevention and treatment for both heroin and nonmedical prescription opioid use. Future research should continue to explore gender differences in treatment access, including access to medication-assisted treatments and treatments integrated with health and social services, especially for women.
- Identification of heavy drinking in the 10-item AUDIT: Results from a prospective study among 18-21years old non-dependent German males. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:94-101
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite the considerable number of heavy-drinking individuals unidentified by AUDIT total scores, an additional classification according to AUDIT-C values did not prove useful. Combining AUDIT and AUDIT-C scores might not be sufficient for identifying AUD risk groups among young adult German males. There is an urgent need for a replication of our findings among female participants.
- Exploration of treatment matching of problem drinker characteristics to motivational interviewing and non-directive client-centered psychotherapy. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:9-16
- Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a known effective intervention for alcohol use disorder (AUD). MI's mechanisms of action remain inconsistently substantiated, and research in this area has been reli...
Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a known effective intervention for alcohol use disorder (AUD). MI's mechanisms of action remain inconsistently substantiated, and research in this area has been reliant on identifying relationships through strength of association rather than experimental manipulation of active ingredients. In two previous studies, a pilot and a larger replication study, we disaggregated MI into its hypothesized active ingredients by creating three conditions: MI, Spirit Only MI (SOMI, in which evocation of change talk was proscribed), and a non-therapy condition (NTC). Results from both studies yielded equivalent findings across all three conditions. In the current analyses, data from both studies were combined to test five participant characteristics as moderators of MI's component parts: 1) severity of baseline drinking, 2) severe AUD (met 6 or more criteria), 3) baseline self-efficacy to moderate drinking, 4) mean daily confidence to resist heavy drinking in the week prior to treatment initiation, and 5) depression. There were no significant findings related to baseline drinking, severe AUD, or baseline self-efficacy. Confidence yielded a significant interaction effect. When participants had high baseline confidence, drinking for those in MI increased compared to those in SOMI. Depression also yielded a significant moderating effect such that in the context of higher depressive symptoms, receipt of either therapy reduced drinking relative to NTC. Results are discussed in light of existing literature on MOBC with MI and the potential role exploring ambivalence may play for participants with particular characteristics.
- A qualitative assessment of attitudes about and preferences for extended-release naltrexone, a new pharmacotherapy to treat opioid use disorders in Ukraine. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:86-93
- Numerous individual barriers, including negative attitudes toward opioid agonist therapies (OAT), have undermined HIV prevention efforts in Ukraine where the epidemic is concentrated in people who in...
Numerous individual barriers, including negative attitudes toward opioid agonist therapies (OAT), have undermined HIV prevention efforts in Ukraine where the epidemic is concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). The recent availability of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), an opioid antagonist, provides new opportunities for treatment and prevention, but little is known about patient preferences. We conducted qualitative analysis using focus groups (FG) of PWID recruited based on OAT experience: currently, previously, and never on OAT in five Ukrainian cities. FG included 199 PWID in 25 focus groups. Focus group transcripts were coded and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify common themes and domains related to attitudes about and preferences for XR-NTX, relative to other treatments. Interest in XR-NTX was supported if supervised opioid withdrawal and psychological support were assured. Other factors supporting XR-NTX included a focus on younger PWID early in their injection career and motivated for recovery. Perceptions of recovery included not receiving psychoactive medications like methadone or buprenorphine. With more information, XR-NTX could be a viable option for PWID in Ukraine, especially if concerns regarding withdrawal and psychological support are adequately addressed.
- Utilization of outpatient medical care and substance use among rural stimulant users: Do the number of visits matter? [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:78-85
- Rural substance users are less likely than their urban peers to use formal substance use treatment. It is therefore important to understand how the utilization of potentially more appealing care opti...
Rural substance users are less likely than their urban peers to use formal substance use treatment. It is therefore important to understand how the utilization of potentially more appealing care options, such as outpatient medical care (OMC), may affect substance use over time. This study sought to examine whether the number of OMC visits, after controlling for important covariates, was associated with days of alcohol, crack and powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use among a sample of rural stimulant users over a three year period. Data were collected from a natural history study of 710 stimulant users living in rural communities in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio. Participants were adults, not in drug treatment, and reporting stimulant use in the last 30days. In terms of alcohol use, for participants with higher employment-related problems, having 3 or more OMC visits (relative to none) was associated with fewer days of alcohol use. The results for days of cocaine and methamphetamine use were mixed. However, we did find that for participants reporting at least one substance use treatment or mutual help care visit in the past 6-months, having 1-2 OMC visits (compared to none) was associated with fewer days of crack cocaine use. Regarding methamphetamine use, results showed that for participants without medical insurance, having 3 or more OMC visits (compared to none) was associated with significantly fewer days of methamphetamine use if they also reported greater than or equal to a high school education. The findings from this study may help us begin to understand some of the characteristics of rural drug users, who utilize OMCs, associated with reductions in substance use. These findings may help health care administrators better plan, coordinate, and allocate resources to rural OMCs to more effectively address substance use in this population.
- Use of web-based screening and brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use by older adults. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:70-77
- CONCLUSIONS: An online screening and intervention tool identified many older adults with unhealthy alcohol use behaviors and most were receptive to change. Web-based screening and interventions for alcohol use have the potential to be widely used among older adults.
- Expected and actual fentanyl exposure among persons seeking opioid withdrawal management. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:65-69
- CONCLUSIONS: Nearly nine in ten participants tested positive for fentanyl, including participants who anticipated their tests would be negative. Leveraging toxicology results in opioid withdrawal settings may be helpful in educating patients about fentanyl exposure and risks.
- Two brief valid measures of therapeutic alliance in counseling for tobacco dependence. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:60-64
- Behavioral counseling is effective for smoking cessation and the psychotherapy literature indicates therapeutic alliance is key to counseling effectiveness. However, no tobacco-counseling specific me...
Behavioral counseling is effective for smoking cessation and the psychotherapy literature indicates therapeutic alliance is key to counseling effectiveness. However, no tobacco-counseling specific measures of alliance exist that are suitable in most tobacco counseling contexts. This hinders assessment of counseling components in research and clinical practice. Based on the Working Alliance Inventory, and external expert review, we developed two alliance instruments: the 12-item and 3-item Working Alliance Inventory for Tobacco (WAIT-12 and WAIT-3). Two samples of 226 daily smokers via Amazon Mechanical Turk completed measures including demographics, tobacco characteristics, working alliance scales, and quit attempts. Both WAIT-12 and WAIT-3 had good to excellent internal consistency (0.92 and 0.88 for the WAIT-3 and 0.96 for the WAIT-12). The WAIT-12 1-factor model indicated poor fit (CFI=0.83, TLI=0.79, RMSEA=0.19, SRMR=0.09). The WAIT-12 3-factor model (CFI=0.94, TLI=0.93, RMSEA=0.11, SRMR=0.04) was indicative of acceptable fit. Both the WAIT-12 and the WAIT-3 were significantly associated with participants' self-reported cigarettes per day, quit attempts, and cessation. Initial validation of the WAIT-12 and WAIT-3 indicates they are psychometrically sound measures of tobacco dependence counseling alliance. The WAIT-3 provides brevity; it can be administered in under 1min. The WAIT-12 allows for assessment of specific components of therapeutic alliance. Overall, these instruments should allow for better measurement of alliance in clinical services and research.
- Knowledge about nutrition, eating habits and weight reduction intervention among methadone maintenance treatment patients. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:52-59
- Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients are often under-nourished and overweight. The impact of a nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge about healthy food habits and losing weigh...
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients are often under-nourished and overweight. The impact of a nutrition intervention program to improve knowledge about healthy food habits and losing weight was studied. Patients were screened for knowledge about nutrition and body mass index (BMI). Those with a low knowledge score or a BMI ≥26 (n=89) were randomly divided into either intervention (two lectures on healthy nutrition followed by weight monitoring over 6weeks), or controls (weighed at baseline, post-lectures and at study closure). The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), eating behavior rating, and nutrition knowledge questionnaires were used. Knowledge and food habit scores improved in the intervention group (28.4±4.3, 37.2±3.1, 32.5±3.9 pre-, post- and 6-weeks post-lectures, respectively), with no change in the controls (28.6±3.4, 28.2±4.9, 28.1±5.3, repeated measured p(time)=0.001, p(group)=0.001, p(interaction)=0.001); food habit (intervention: 35.0±7.0, 38.4±5.2, 37.5±5.3, controls: 34.0±6.9, 34.7±6.9, 34.6±7.4, p(time)=0.001, p(group)=0.04, p(interaction)=0.06). BMI scores however did not change and were similar in both groups (p=0.9). Of all patients, 10.1% met the criteria of food addiction according to the YFAS, 40.4% lost weight and 28% gained weight, with no group differences. There were more symptoms of food addiction among the patients who gained weight vs. those who lost weight (3.7±2.0 vs. 2.6±1.8, respectively, p=0.04). We concluded that although weight loss was not observed, intervention is recommended for improving knowledge about nutrition and for fostering healthy eating habits with the aim of reducing diet-related morbidity among all MMT patients. Longitudinal program combined with physical activity is needed to study if may lead to weight loss.
New Search Next
- Patterns of co-occurring addictions, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depressive disorder in detoxification treatment seekers: Implications for improving detoxification treatment outcomes. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Subst Abuse Treat 2018; 86:45-51
- CONCLUSIONS: The observed classes likely require differing treatment approaches. For example, people in the PTSD-MDD-Poly SUD class would likely benefit from treatment approaches targeting anxiety sensitivity and distress tolerance, while the opioid-tobacco class would benefit from treatments that incorporate motivational interviewing. Appropriate matching of treatment to class could optimize treatment outcomes for polysubstance and comorbid psychiatric treatment seekers. These findings also underscore the importance of well-developed referral networks to optimize outpatient psychotherapy for detoxification treatment-seekers to enhance long-term recovery, particularly those that include transdiagnostic treatment components.