- Sox11 gene disruption causes congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 16
- Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) belong to the most common birth defects in human, but the molecular basis for the majority of CAKUT patients remains unknown. Here...
Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) belong to the most common birth defects in human, but the molecular basis for the majority of CAKUT patients remains unknown. Here we show that the transcription factor SOX11 is a crucial regulator of kidney development. SOX11 is expressed in both mesenchymal and epithelial components of the early kidney anlagen. Deletion of Sox11 in mice causes an extension of the domain expressing Gdnf within rostral regions of the nephrogenic cord and results in duplex kidney formation. On the molecular level SOX11 directly binds and regulates a locus control region of the protocadherin B cluster. At later stages of kidney development, SOX11 becomes restricted to the intermediate segment of the developing nephron where it is required for the elongation of Henle's loop. Finally, mutation analysis in a cohort of patients suffering from CAKUT identified a series of rare SOX11 variants, one of which interferes with the transactivation capacity of the SOX11 protein. Taken together these data demonstrate a key role for SOX11 in normal kidney development and may suggest that variants in this gene predispose to CAKUT in humans.
- Revision of the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification for lupus nephritis: clarification of definitions, and modified National Institutes of Health activity and chronicity indices. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 16
- We present a consensus report pertaining to the improved clarity of definitions and classification of glomerular lesions in lupus nephritis that derived from a meeting of 18 members of an internation...
We present a consensus report pertaining to the improved clarity of definitions and classification of glomerular lesions in lupus nephritis that derived from a meeting of 18 members of an international nephropathology working group in Leiden, Netherlands, in 2016. Here we report detailed recommendations on issues for which we can propose adjustments based on existing evidence and current consensus opinion (phase 1). New definitions are provided for mesangial hypercellularity and for cellular, fibrocellular, and fibrous crescents. The term "endocapillary proliferation" is eliminated and the definition of endocapillary hypercellularity considered in some detail. We also eliminate the class IV-S and IV-G subdivisions of class IV lupus nephritis. The active and chronic designations for class III/IV lesions are replaced by a proposal for activity and chronicity indices that should be applied to all classes. In the activity index, we include fibrinoid necrosis as a specific descriptor. We also make recommendations on issues for which there are limited data at present and that can best be addressed in future studies (phase 2). We propose to proceed to these investigations, with clinicopathologic studies and tests of interobserver reproducibility to evaluate the applications of the proposed definitions and to classify lupus nephritis lesions.
- Elevated tissue sodium deposition in patients with type 2 diabetes on hemodialysis detected by23Na magnetic resonance imaging. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 15
- Long-term elevated blood sugar levels result in tissue matrix compositional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We hypothesized that hemodialysis patients with T2DM might accumu...
Long-term elevated blood sugar levels result in tissue matrix compositional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We hypothesized that hemodialysis patients with T2DM might accumulate more tissue sodium than control hemodialysis patients. To test this,23Na magnetic resonance imaging (23Na MRI) was used to estimate sodium in skin and muscle tissue in hemodialysis patients with or without T2DM. Muscle fat content was estimated by1H MRI and tissue sodium content by23Na MRI pre- and post-hemodialysis in ten hemodialysis patients with T2DM and in 30 matched control hemodialysis patients. We also assessed body fluid distribution with the Body Composition Monitor.1H MRI indicated a tendency to higher muscle fat content in hemodialysis patients with T2DM compared to non-diabetic hemodialysis patients.23Na MRI indicated increased sodium content in muscle and skin tissue of hemodialysis patients with T2DM compared to control hemodialysis patients. Multi-frequency bioimpedance was used to estimate extracellular water (ECW), and excess ECW in T2DM hemodialysis patients correlated with HbA1c levels. Sodium mobilization during hemodialysis lowered muscle sodium content post-dialysis to a greater degree in T2DM hemodialysis patients than in control hemodialysis patients. Thus, our findings provide evidence that increased sodium accumulation occurs in hemodialysis patients with T2DM and that impaired serum glucose metabolism is associated with disturbances in tissue sodium and water content.
- Increased degradation of ATP is driven by memory regulatory T cells in kidney transplantation tolerance. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 15
- Regulatory T cells were recently proposed as the central actor in operational tolerance after renal transplantation. Tolerant patients harbor increased FoxP3hi memory Treg frequency and increased dem...
Regulatory T cells were recently proposed as the central actor in operational tolerance after renal transplantation. Tolerant patients harbor increased FoxP3hi memory Treg frequency and increased demethylation in the Foxp3 Treg-specific demethylated region when compared to stable kidney recipients and exhibit greater memory Treg suppressive capacities and higher expression of the ectonucleotidase CD39. However, in this particular and unique situation the mechanisms of action of Tregs were not identified. Thus, we analyzed the ability of memory Tregs to degrade extracellular ATP in tolerant patients, healthy volunteers, and patients with stable graft function under immunosuppression and determined the role of immunosuppressive drugs on this process. The conserved proportion of memory Tregs leads to the establishment of a pro-tolerogenic balance in operationally tolerant patients. Memory Tregs in tolerant patients display normal capacity to degrade extracellular ATP/ADP. In contrast, memory Tregs from patients with stable graft function do not have this ability. Finally, in vitro, immunosuppressive drugs may favor the lower proportion of memory Tregs in stable patients, but they have no effect on CD39-dependent ATP degradation and do not explain memory Treg lack of extracellular ATP/ADP degradation ability. Thus, intrinsic active regulatory mechanisms may act long after immunosuppressive drug arrest in operationally tolerant patients and may contribute to kidney allograft tolerance via the maintenance of CD39 Treg function.
- A novel assay provides sensitive measurement of physiologically relevant changes in albumin permeability in isolated human and rodent glomeruli. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 09
- Increased urinary albumin excretion is a key feature of glomerular disease but has limitations as a measure of glomerular permeability. Here we describe a novel assay to measure the apparent albumin ...
Increased urinary albumin excretion is a key feature of glomerular disease but has limitations as a measure of glomerular permeability. Here we describe a novel assay to measure the apparent albumin permeability of single capillaries in glomeruli, isolated from perfused kidneys cleared of red blood cells. The rate of decline of the albumin concentration within the capillary lumen was quantified using confocal microscopy and used to calculate apparent permeability. The assay was extensively validated and provided robust, reproducible estimates of glomerular albumin permeability. These values were comparable with previous in vivo data, showing this assay could be applied to human as well as rodent glomeruli. To confirm this, we showed that targeted endothelial glycocalyx disruption resulted in increased glomerular albumin permeability in mice. Furthermore, incubation with plasma from patients with post-transplant recurrence of nephrotic syndrome increased albumin permeability in rat glomeruli compared to remission plasma. Finally, in glomeruli isolated from rats with early diabetes there was a significant increase in albumin permeability and loss of endothelial glycocalyx, both of which were ameliorated by angiopoietin-1. Thus, a glomerular permeability assay, producing physiologically relevant values with sufficient sensitivity to measure changes in glomerular permeability and independent of tubular function, was developed and validated. This assay significantly advances the ability to study biology and disease in rodent and human glomeruli.
- Intranuclear delivery of the transcription modulation domain of Tbet-improved lupus nephritis in (NZB/NZW) F1 lupus-prone mice. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 03
- Excessive expression of Tbet and IFNγ is evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in lupus patients. In this study, the nucleus-transducible form of Transcription Modulation Domain (TMD) of Tbe...
Excessive expression of Tbet and IFNγ is evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in lupus patients. In this study, the nucleus-transducible form of Transcription Modulation Domain (TMD) of Tbet (ntTbet-TMD), which is a fusion protein between Protein Transduction Domain Hph-1 (Hph-1-PTD) and the TMD of Tbet comprising DNA binding domain and isotype-specific domain, was generated to inhibit Tbet-mediated transcription in the interactomic manner. ntTbet-TMD was effectively delivered into the nucleus of the cells and specifically inhibited Tbet-mediated transcription without influencing the differentiation of other T cell subsets and signaling events for T cell activation. The severity of nephritis was significantly reduced by ntTbet-TMD as effectively as methylprednisolone in lupus-prone mice. The number of Th1, Th2 or Th17 cells and the secretion of their cytokines substantially decreased in the spleen and kidney of lupus-prone mice by ntTbet-TMD treatment. In contrast to methylprednisolone, the marked increase of Treg cells and the secretion of their immunosuppressive cytokine were detected in the spleen of (NZB/NZW) F1 mice treated with ntTbet-TMD. Thus, ntTbet-TMD can improve nephritis in lupus-prone mice by modulating the overall proinflammatory microenvironment and rebalancing T cell subsets, leading to new immune therapeutics for Th1-mediated autoimmune diseases.
- Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologic agents lowers the risk of incident chronic kidney disease. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 03
- Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with reduced kidney function, possibly due to chronic inflammation or the use of nephrotoxic therapies. However, little is known about the effects of using the newe...
Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with reduced kidney function, possibly due to chronic inflammation or the use of nephrotoxic therapies. However, little is known about the effects of using the newer novel non-nephrotoxic biologic agents on the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). To study this we used a cohort of 20,757 United States veterans diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73m2or more, recruited between October 2004 and September 2006, and followed through 2013. The associations of biologic use with incident CKD (eGFR under 60 with a decrease of at least 25% from baseline, and eGFR under 45 mL/min/1.73m2) and change in eGFR (<-3, -3 to <0 [reference], and ≥0 mL/min/1.73m2/year) were examined in propensity-matched patients based on their likelihood to initiate biologic treatment, using Cox models and multinomial logistic regression models, respectively. Among 20,757 patients, 4,617 started biologic therapy. In the propensity-matched cohort, patients treated (versus not treated) with biologic agents had a lower risk of incident CKD (hazard ratios 0.95, 95% confidence interval [0.82-1.10] and 0.71 [0.53-0.94] for decrease in eGFR under 60 and under 45 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively) and progressive eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios [95% CI] for eGFR slopes <-3 and ≥0 [versus -3 to <0] mL/min/1.73m2/year, 0.67 [0.58-0.79] and 0.76 [0.69-0.83], respectively). A significant deceleration of eGFR decline was also observed after biologic administration in patients treated with biologics (-1.0 versus -0.4 [mL/min/1.73m2/year] before and after biologic use). Thus, biologic agent administration was independently associated with lower risk of incident CKD and progressive eGFR decline.
- The sodium phosphate cotransporter family and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase contribute to the daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate concentration. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 01
- Circulating inorganic phosphate exhibits a remarkable daily oscillation based on food intake. In humans and rodents, the daily oscillation in response to food intake may be coordinated to control the...
Circulating inorganic phosphate exhibits a remarkable daily oscillation based on food intake. In humans and rodents, the daily oscillation in response to food intake may be coordinated to control the intestinal absorption, renal excretion, cellular shifts, and extracellular concentration of inorganic phosphate. However, mechanisms regulating the resulting oscillation are unknown. Here we investigated the roles of the sodium phosphate cotransporter SLC34 (Npt2) family and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) in the daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate levels. First, it is roughly linked to urinary inorganic phosphate excretion. Second, expression of renal Npt2a and Npt2c, and intestinal Npt2b proteins also exhibit a dynamic daily oscillation. Analyses of Npt2a, Npt2b, and Npt2c knockout mice revealed the importance of renal inorganic phosphate reabsorption and cellular inorganic phosphate shifts in the daily oscillation. Third, experiments in which nicotinamide and a specific Nampt inhibitor (FK866) were administered in the active and rest phases revealed that the Nampt/NAD+system is involved in renal inorganic phosphate excretion. Additionally, for cellular shifts, liver-specific Nampt deletion disturbed the daily oscillation of plasma phosphate during the rest but not the active phase. In systemic Nampt+/-mice, NAD levels were significantly reduced in the liver, kidney, and intestine, and the daily oscillation (active and rest phases) of the plasma phosphate concentration was attenuated. Thus, the Nampt/NAD+system for Npt2 regulation and cellular shifts to tissues such as the liver play an important role in generating daily oscillation of plasma inorganic phosphate levels.
- Activation of podocyte Notch mediates early Wt1 glomerulopathy. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 02
- The Wilms' tumor suppressor gene, WT1, encodes a zinc finger protein that regulates podocyte development and is highly expressed in mature podocytes. Mutations in the WT1 gene are associated with the...
The Wilms' tumor suppressor gene, WT1, encodes a zinc finger protein that regulates podocyte development and is highly expressed in mature podocytes. Mutations in the WT1 gene are associated with the development of renal failure due to the formation of scar tissue within glomeruli, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here, we used a tamoxifen-based CRE-LoxP system to induce deletion of Wt1 in adult mice to investigate the mechanisms underlying evolution of glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte apoptosis was evident as early as the fourth day post-induction and increased during disease progression, supporting a role for Wt1 in mature podocyte survival. Podocyte Notch activation was evident at disease onset with upregulation of Notch1 and its transcriptional targets, including Nrarp. There was repression of podocyte FoxC2 and upregulation of Hey2 supporting a role for a Wt1/FoxC2/Notch transcriptional network in mature podocyte injury. The expression of cleaved Notch1 and HES1 proteins in podocytes of mutant mice was confirmed in early disease. Furthermore, induction of podocyte HES1 expression was associated with upregulation of genes implicated in epithelial mesenchymal transition, thereby suggesting that HES1 mediates podocyte EMT. Lastly, early pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling ameliorated glomerular scarring and albuminuria. Thus, loss of Wt1 in mature podocytes modulates podocyte Notch activation, which could mediate early events in WT1-related glomerulosclerosis.
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- Kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int 2018 Feb 02
- HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for kidney disease, including HIV-associated nephropathy, noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, immune-complex kidney disease, and comorbid ...
HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk for kidney disease, including HIV-associated nephropathy, noncollapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, immune-complex kidney disease, and comorbid kidney disease, as well as kidney injury resulting from prolonged exposure to antiretroviral therapy or from opportunistic infections. Clinical guidelines for kidney disease prevention and treatment in HIV-positive individuals are largely extrapolated from studies in the general population, and do not fully incorporate existing knowledge of the unique HIV-related pathways and genetic factors that contribute to the risk of kidney disease in this population. We convened an international panel of experts in nephrology, renal pathology, and infectious diseases to define the pathology of kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection; describe the role of genetics in the natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals; characterize the renal risk-benefit of antiretroviral therapy for HIV treatment and prevention; and define best practices for the prevention and management of kidney disease in HIV-positive individuals.