- Social behaviour and making attachments: a report from the fifth 'Young Microbiologists Symposium on Microbe Signalling, Organisation and Pathogenesis'. [Journal Article]
- MMicrobiology 2018 Dec 06
- The fifth Young Microbiologists Symposium was held in Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, in late August 2018. The symposium, focused on 'Microbe signalling, organization and pathogenesis',...
The fifth Young Microbiologists Symposium was held in Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland, in late August 2018. The symposium, focused on 'Microbe signalling, organization and pathogenesis', attracted 121 microbiologists from 15 countries. The meeting allowed junior scientists to present their work to a broad audience, and was supported by the European Molecular Biology Organization, the Federation of European Microbiological Societies, the Society of Applied Microbiology, the Biochemical Society and the Microbiology Society. Sessions covered recent advances in areas of microbiology including gene regulation and signalling, secretion and transport across membranes, infection and immunity, and antibiotics and resistance mechanisms. In this Meeting Report, we highlight some of the most significant advances and exciting developments communicated during talks and poster presentations.
- Prisoners of war - host adaptation and its constraints on virus evolution. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 05
- Recent discoveries of contemporary genotypes of hepatitis B virus and parvovirus B19 in ancient human remains demonstrate that little genetic change has occurred in these viruses over 4,500-6,000 yea...
Recent discoveries of contemporary genotypes of hepatitis B virus and parvovirus B19 in ancient human remains demonstrate that little genetic change has occurred in these viruses over 4,500-6,000 years. Endogenous viral elements in host genomes provide separate evidence that viruses similar to many major contemporary groups circulated 100 million years ago or earlier. In this Opinion article, we argue that the extraordinary conservation of virus genome sequences is best explained by a niche-filling model in which fitness optimization is rapidly achieved in their specific hosts. Whereas short-term substitution rates reflect the accumulation of tolerated sequence changes within adapted genomes, longer-term rates increasingly resemble those of their hosts as the evolving niche moulds and effectively imprisons the virus in co-adapted virus-host relationships. Contrastingly, viruses that jump hosts undergo strong and stringent adaptive selection as they maximize their fit to their new niche. This adaptive capability may paradoxically create evolutionary stasis in long-term host relationships. While viruses can evolve and adapt rapidly, their hosts may ultimately shape their longer-term evolution.
- Molecular characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates associated with pneumonic cases of sheep in selected areas of Central Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 05; 18(1):205
- CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated that M.haemolytica is commonly associated with cases of pneumonia in sheep in the study areas of central Ethiopia although the remaining other pathogens responsible for majority of the cases are yet to be determined. Molecular characterization revealed the existence of three genotypes of M. haemolytica circulating in the study areas consistent to the site of isolation. The findings suggest further extensive work to determine all pathogens associated with sheep pneumonia and the strain distribution of M. heamolytica to understand its molecular epidemiology at national level and design cost effective prevention and control methods.
- USA300 Staphylococcus aureus persists on multiple body sites following an infection. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 05; 18(1):206
- CONCLUSIONS: Clonal lineages of USA300 may continue to colonize people at one or more anatomic sites up to a year after an initial infection and experience loss of the SCCmec, loss and gain of other mobile genetic elements, and mutations in the agr operon.
- Sequencing in the time of Ebola. [Journal Article]
- NRNat Rev Microbiol 2018 Nov 30
- DORA Editorial. [Journal Article]
- MMicrobiology 2018 Dec 05
- Viral RNA structure-based strategies to manipulate translation. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Microbiol 2018 Dec 04
- Viruses must co-opt the cellular translation machinery to produce progeny virions. Eukaryotic viruses have evolved a variety of ways to manipulate the cellular translation apparatus, in many cases us...
Viruses must co-opt the cellular translation machinery to produce progeny virions. Eukaryotic viruses have evolved a variety of ways to manipulate the cellular translation apparatus, in many cases using elegant RNA-centred strategies. Viral RNAs can alter or control every phase of protein synthesis and have diverse targets, mechanisms and structures. In addition, as cells attempt to limit infection by downregulating translation, some of these viral RNAs enable the virus to overcome this response or even take advantage of it to promote viral translation over cellular translation. In this Review, we present important examples of viral RNA-based strategies to exploit the cellular translation machinery. We describe what is understood of the structures and mechanisms of diverse viral RNA elements that alter or regulate translation, the advantages that are conferred to the virus and some of the major unknowns that provide motivation for further exploration.
- Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in sheep and goat abortion samples. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 04; 18(1):204
- CONCLUSIONS: The current study introduces into the aspect of genotyping of C. burnetii in Greece. Further studies are needed to explore the presence of more genotypes, to associate the genotypes circulating in the animal and tick population with those causing human disease in order to further expand on the epidemiological aspects of the pathogen.
- The possible molecular mechanisms of farnesol on the antifungal resistance of C. albicans biofilms: the regulation of CYR1 and PDE2. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 04; 18(1):203
- CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that CYR1 and PDE2 regulate the resistance of C. albicans biofilms to antifungals. Farnesol suppresses the resistance of C. albicans biofilms to antifungals by regulating the expression of the gene CYR1 and PDE2, while PDE2 regulation was subordinate to CYR1 regulation.
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- Characterization of hepatitis B virus with complex structural variations. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 03; 18(1):202
- CONCLUSIONS: Through an extensive search of HBV sequences, new strains with complex SVs were identified in this study. Characteristics of HBV with complex SVs were clarified by the analysis of 70 HBV strains harboring complex SVs. Further investigation is required to elucidate its role in pathogenesis of HBV-related liver disease.