- Brownian Model of Transcriptome Evolution and Phylogenetic Network Visualization between Tissues. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 22
- While phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of the same tissue is usually congruent with the species tree, the controversy emerges when multiple tissues are included, that is, whether species from ...
While phylogenetic analysis of transcriptomes of the same tissue is usually congruent with the species tree, the controversy emerges when multiple tissues are included, that is, whether species from the same tissue are clustered together, or different tissues from the same species are clustered together. Recent studies have suggested that phylogenetic network approach may shed some lights on our understanding of multi-tissue transcriptome evolution; yet the underlying evolutionary mechanism remains unclear. In this paper we develop a Brownian-based model of transcriptome evolution under the phylogenetic network that can statistically distinguish between the patterns of species-clustering and tissue-clustering. Our model can be used as a null hypothesis (neutral transcriptome evolution) for testing any correlation in tissue evolution, can be applied to cancer transcriptome evolution to study whether two tumors of an individual appeared independently or via metastasis, and can be useful to detect convergent evolution at the transcriptional level.
- Global phylogeny and biogeography of the fern genus Ctenitis (Dryopteridaceae), with a focus on the Indian Ocean region. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 21
- The diverse and pantropical genus Ctenitis, in the Dryopteridaceae, has been largely ignored in phylogenetic studies until now. In this study, we fill in this gap by reconstructing the first comprehe...
The diverse and pantropical genus Ctenitis, in the Dryopteridaceae, has been largely ignored in phylogenetic studies until now. In this study, we fill in this gap by reconstructing the first comprehensive phylogeny of the genus including 53 species currently recognized in the genus Ctenitis, among which seven species formerly were assigned to the genus Pseudotectaria and one to Heterogonium. Special emphasis was given to the sampling of species occurring in the African-Indian Ocean region. The presented results include reconstruction of a biogeographic scenario based on estimated divergence times and ancestral area reconstruction. Our findings confirm the inclusion, within Ctenitis, of the Indian Ocean species formerly placed in Pseudotectaria and Heterogonium. The crown group divergence was estimated to date back to the Oligocene or Early Miocene. The biogeographical scenario indicates an initial divergence of the Asian-Pacific ranges and the neotropical ranges, and a subsequent colonization of the Afro-Madagascan region by a lineage with neotropical ancestors. The Afro-Madagascan lineage splits into a lineage endemic to the Mascarene islands and a lineage occurring in Madagascar, the Comoros and Africa. The range expansion towards Africa and Madagascar was estimated to date back to the late Miocene, whereas the estimated ages for the onset of the diversification of the Mascarene diversity is consistent with the ages of these young, volcanic islands. The absence of any extant species of Ctenitis with a multi-continental distribution range and the rarity of inter-island dispersal and speciation in the Indian Ocean region suggest a limited contribution of long distance dispersal to the biogeographical history of this fern genus, versus a high contribution of local speciation.
- Unique parallel radiations of high-mountainous species of the genus Sedum (Crassulaceae) on the continental island of Taiwan. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 21
- We explored the temporal and spatial diversification of the plant genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae) in Taiwan based on molecular analysis of nrITS and cpDNA sequences from East Asian Sedum members. Our p...
We explored the temporal and spatial diversification of the plant genus Sedum L. (Crassulaceae) in Taiwan based on molecular analysis of nrITS and cpDNA sequences from East Asian Sedum members. Our phylogenetic and ancestral area reconstruction analysis showed that Taiwanese Sedum comprised two lineages that independently migrated from Japan and Eastern China. Furthermore, the genetic distances among species in these two clades were smaller than those of other East Asian Sedum clades, and the Taiwanese members of each clade occupy extremely varied habitats with similar niches in high-mountain regions. These data indicate that species diversification occurred in parallel in the two Taiwanese Sedum lineages, and that these parallel radiations could have occurred within the small continental island of Taiwan. Moreover, the estimated time of divergence for Taiwanese Sedum indicates that the two radiations might have been correlated to the formation of mountains in Taiwan during the early Pleistocene. We suggest that these parallel radiations may be attributable to the geographical dynamics of Taiwan and specific biological features of Sedum that allow them to adapt to new ecological niches.
- Further consideration on the phylogeny of the Ciliophora: analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear data with focus on the extremely confused class Phyllopharyngea. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 21
- Most ciliate phylogenetic analyses have largely relied on the nuclear small subunit ribosome DNA (nSSU-rDNA) locus. However, single locus or multi-loci from the same genome or chromosome may not be s...
Most ciliate phylogenetic analyses have largely relied on the nuclear small subunit ribosome DNA (nSSU-rDNA) locus. However, single locus or multi-loci from the same genome or chromosome may not be sufficient enough to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among ciliate taxa. Therefore, in addition to nSSU-rDNA, the mitochondrial small subunit ribosome DNA (mtSSU-rDNA) was applied in this study. We expanded the taxon sampling especially within the class Phyllopharyngea. Phylogenetic analyses based on nSSU-rDNA and mtSSU-rDNA, independently, as well as concatenated were performed and revealed the following: (1) mtSSU-rDNA is more variable than nSSU-rDNA, and is better at elucidating relationships at lower levels, e.g. intra-/inter-specific or generic relationships; (2) the validity of the two genera Mirodysteria and Spirodysteria is challenged based on their similar morphology with Dysteria and the analyses from both mtSSU-rDNA and nSSU-rDNA; (3) Brooklynella is confirmed to be an intermediate taxon between Dysteriidae and Hartmannulidae, and may represent a distinct family; (4) Trithigmostoma should remain in Chilodonellidae; (5) the separation of Paraspathidium from Litostomatea is supported and it groups with prostomateans and plagiopyleans. In summary, results from mtSSU-rDNA corroborated those of nSSU-rDNA for highly supported clades, and the mtSSU-rDNA tree with its secondary structure gave topologies that could be explained by the morphology; therefore it can be useful in some cases towards better resolution of robust phylogenies.
- Cryptic diversity in Amazonian frogs: integrative taxonomy of the genus Anomaloglossus (Amphibia: Anura: Aromobatidae) reveals a unique case of diversification within the Guiana Shield. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 21
- Lack of resolution on species boundaries and distribution can hamper inferences in many fields of biology, notably biogeography and conservation biology. This is particularly true in megadiverse and ...
Lack of resolution on species boundaries and distribution can hamper inferences in many fields of biology, notably biogeography and conservation biology. This is particularly true in megadiverse and under-surveyed regions such as Amazonia, where species richness remains vastly underestimated. Recently, integrative approaches using a combination of phenotypic and molecular phylogenetics evidence have proved extremely successful in reducing knowledge gaps, especially in animal groups displaying high levels of cryptic diversity like amphibians. Here we combine molecular data (mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear TYR, POMC, and RAG1) from 522 specimens including 16 of the 26 nominal species, with morphometrics, bioacoustics, tadpole development mode, and habitat use to evaluate species delineation in two species groups of Anomaloglossus, a genus of frog endemic to the Guiana Shield. Molecular data reveal the existence of 18 major mtDNA lineages among which only six correspond to described species. Combined with other lines of evidence, we confirm the existence of at least 12 Anomaloglossus species in the Guiana Shield lowlands. Anomaloglossus appears to be the only amphibian genus to have largely diversified throughout the eastern part of the Guiana Shield. Our results also reveal strikingly different phenotypic evolution among lineages. Within the A. degranvillei group, one subclade displays acoustic and morphological conservatism, while the second subclade displays less molecular divergence but clear phenotypic divergence. In the A. stepheni species group, a complex evolutionary diversification in tadpole development is observed, notably with two closely related lineages each displaying polymorphism for the same pair of contrasting modes of tadpole development.
- Simultaneous speciation in the European high mountain flowering plant genus Facchinia (Minuartia s.l., Caryophyllaceae) revealed by genotyping-by-sequencing. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 19; 112:23-35
- Understanding the relative importance of different mechanisms of speciation in a given lineage requires fully resolved interspecific relationships. Using Facchinia, a genus of seven species centred i...
Understanding the relative importance of different mechanisms of speciation in a given lineage requires fully resolved interspecific relationships. Using Facchinia, a genus of seven species centred in the European Alps, we explore whether the polytomy found by Sanger sequencing analyses of standard nuclear (ITS) and plastid markers (trnQ-rps16) is a hard or soft polytomy by substantially increasing the amount of DNA sequence data, generated by genotyping-by-sequencing. In comparison to 142 phylogenetically informative sites in the Sanger sequences the GBS sequences yielded 3363 phylogenetically informative sites after exclusion of apparently oversaturated SNPs. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, NeighborNet, SVDquartets and Astral-II analyses all resulted in phylogenetic trees (and networks) in which interspecific relationships were largely unresolved. After excluding incomplete lineage sorting, hybridisation and oversaturation of characters as possible causes for lack of phylogenetic resolution, we conclude that the polytomy obtained most likely represents a hard polytomy. We hypothesize that diversification of Facchinia is best interpreted as the result of multiple simultaneous vicariance in response to climatic changes during the Early Quaternary.
- There is no evidence that Podoctidae carry eggs of their own species: Reply to Machado and Wolff (2017). [Letter]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 19
- In our recent publication (Sharma et al., 2017), we tested the hypothesis that eggs attached to the legs of male Podoctidae (Opiliones, Laniatores) constituted a case of paternal care, using molecula...
In our recent publication (Sharma et al., 2017), we tested the hypothesis that eggs attached to the legs of male Podoctidae (Opiliones, Laniatores) constituted a case of paternal care, using molecular sequence data in tandem with multiple sequence alignments to test the prediction that sequences of the eggs and the adults that carried them would indicate conspecific identity. We discovered that the sequences of the eggs belonged to spiders, and thus rejected the paternal care hypothesis for these species. Machado and Wolff (2017) recently critiqued our work, which they regarded as a non-critical interpretation and over-reliance on molecular sequence data, and defended the traditional argument that the eggs attached to podoctids are in fact harvestman eggs. Here we show that additional molecular sequence data also refute the identity of the eggs as conspecific harvestman eggs, using molecular cloning techniques to rule out contamination. We show that individual gene trees consistently and reliably place the egg and adult sequences in disparate parts of the tree topology. Phylogenetic methods consistently place all egg sequences within the order Araneae (spiders). We submit that evidence for the paternal care hypothesis based on behavioral, morphological, and natural history approaches is either absent or insufficient for concluding that the eggs of podoctids are conspecific.
- Title: High Genetic Diversities Between Isolates of the Fish Parasite Cryptocaryon irritans (Ciliophora) Suggest Multiple Cryptic Species. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 18
- The ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans parasitizes marine fish and causes lethal white spot disease. Sporadic infections as well as large-scale outbreaks have been reported globally and the para...
The ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans parasitizes marine fish and causes lethal white spot disease. Sporadic infections as well as large-scale outbreaks have been reported globally and the parasite's broad host range poses particular threat to the aquaculture and ornamental fish markets. In order to better understand C. irritans' population structure, we sequenced and compared mitochondrial cox-1, SSU rRNA, and ITS-1 sequences from 8 new isolates of C. irritans collected in China, Japan, and Taiwan. We detected two SSU rRNA haplotypes, which differ at three positions, separating the isolates into two main groups (I and II). Cox-1 sequences also support the division into two groups, and the cox-1 divergence between these two groups is unexpectedly high (9.28% for 1,582 nucleotide positions). The divergence is much greater than that detected in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the ciliate protozoan causing freshwater white spot disease in fish, where intraspecies divergence on cox-1 sequence is only 1.95%. ITS-1 sequences derived from these eight isolates and from all other C. irritans isolates (deposited in the GenBank) not only support the two groups, but further suggest the presence of a third group with even greater sequence divergence. Finally, a small Ka/Ks ratio estimated from cox-1 sequences suggests that this gene in C. irritans remains under strong purifying selection. Taken together, the C. irritans species may consists of many subspecies and/or syngens. Further work is needed to determine if there is reproductive isolation between the groups we have defined.
- Molecular evolution of the plastid genome during diversification of the cotton genus. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 13
- Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and m...
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here. In combination with the 26 previously released cpDNA sequences, we performed comparative phylogenetic analyses of 34 Gossypium chloroplast genomes that collectively represent most of the diversity in the genus. Gossypium chloroplasts span a small range in size that is mostly attributable to indels that occur in the large single copy (LSC) region of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis using a concatenation of all genes provides robust support for six major Gossypium clades, largely supporting earlier inferences but also revealing new information on intrageneric relationships. Using Theobroma cacao as an outgroup, diversification of the genus was dated, yielding results that are in accord with previous estimates of divergence times, but also offering new perspectives on the basal, early radiation of all major clades within the genus as well as gaps in the record indicative of extinctions. Like most higher-plant chloroplast genomes, all cotton species exhibit a conserved quadripartite structure, i.e., two large inverted repeats (IR) containing most of the ribosomal RNA genes, and two unique regions, LSC (large single sequence) and SSC (small single sequence). Within Gossypium, the IR-single copy region junctions are both variable and homoplasious among species. Two genes, accD and psaJ, exhibited greater rates of synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions than did other genes. Most genes exhibited Ka/Ks ratios suggestive of neutral evolution, with 8 exceptions distributed among one to several species. This research provides an overview of the molecular evolution of a single, large non-recombining molecular during the diversification of this important genus.
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- Molecular phylogenetics and dating of the problematic New Guinea microhylid frogs (Amphibia: Anura) reveals elevated speciation rates and need for taxonomic reclassification. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Phylogenet Evol 2017 Apr 13; 112:1-11
- Asterophryinae is a large monophyletic subfamily of Anurans containing over 300 species distributed across one of the world's most geologically active areas - New Guinea and its satellite islands, Au...
Asterophryinae is a large monophyletic subfamily of Anurans containing over 300 species distributed across one of the world's most geologically active areas - New Guinea and its satellite islands, Australia and the Philippines. The tremendous ecological and morphological diversity of this clade, with apparent specializations for burrowing, terrestrial, semi-aquatic, and arboreal lifestyle, suggests an evolutionary process of adaptive radiation. Despite this spectacular diversity, this and many other questions of evolutionary processes have received little formal study because until now the phylogeny of this spececies-rich clade has remained uncertain. Here we reconstruct a phylogeny for Asterophryinae with greatly increased taxon and genetic sampling relative to prior studies. We use Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods to produce the most robust and comprehensive phylogeny to date containing 155 species using 3 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial loci. We also perform a time calibration analysis to estimate the age of the clade. We find support for the monophyly of Asterophryinae as well as need for taxonomic reclassification of several genera. Furthermore, we find increased rates of speciation across the clade supporting the hypothesis of rapid radiation. Lastly, we found that adding taxa to the analysis produced more robust phylogenetic results over adding loci.