- The effects of voluntary wheel running on neuroinflammatory status: Role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2017 Jan 11
- The health benefits of exercise and physical activity (PA) have been well researched and it is widely accepted that PA is crucial for maintaining health. One of the mechanisms by which exercise and P...
The health benefits of exercise and physical activity (PA) have been well researched and it is widely accepted that PA is crucial for maintaining health. One of the mechanisms by which exercise and PA exert their beneficial effects is through peripheral immune system adaptations. To date, very few studies have looked at the regulation of neuroimmune reactions in response to PA. We studied the effect of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, patterns of glial cell activation and expression of immune receptors in the brains of female C57BL/6 mice. By using homozygous monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 null mice, we investigated the role of this key immunoregulatory cytokine in mediating VWR-induced neuroinflammatory responses. We demonstrated that, compared to their sedentary counterparts, C57BL/6 mice exposed for seven weeks to VWR had increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, markers of glial cell activation and a trend towards increased expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the brain. Measurements of serum cytokines revealed that the alterations in brain cytokine levels could not be explained by the effects of PA on peripheral cytokine levels. We propose that the modified neuroimmune status observed in the VWR group represents an activated immune system, as opposed to a less activated immune system in the sedentary group. Since MCP-1 knockout mice displayed differing patterns of pro- and anti-inflammatory brain cytokine expression and glial activation when compared to their wild-type counterparts, we concluded that the effects of VWR on neuroimmune reactions may be modulated by MCP-1. These identified immunomodulatory effects of PA in the brain could contribute to the observed positive relationship between physically active lifestyles and a reduced risk for a number of neurodegenerative diseases that possess a significant neuroinflammatory component.
- Leukemia inhibitory factor impairs structural and neurochemical development of rat visual cortex in vivo. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2017 Jan 11
- Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocort...
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo. Likewise, DIV 12-20 LIF treatment in organotypic cultures prevents somatic growth GABA-ergic neurons. Further, while NPY expression is increased in the LIF-infused hemispheres, the expression of parvalbumin mRNA and protein, Kv3.1 mRNA, calbindin D-28k protein, and GAD-65 mRNA, but not of GAD-67 mRNA or calretinin protein is substantially reduced. Also, LIF treatment decreases parvalbumin, Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and GAD-65, but not GAD-67 mRNA expression in OTC. Developing cortical neurons are known to depend on neurotrophins. Indeed, LIF alters neurotrophin mRNA expression, and prevents the growth promoting action of neurotophin-4 in GABA-ergic neurons. The results imply that LIF, by altering neurotrophin expression and/or signaling, could counteract neurotrophin-dependent growth and neurochemical differentiation of cortical neurons.
- The short- and long-term proteomic effects of sleep deprivation on the cortical and thalamic synapses. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2017 Jan 10
- Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences fo...
Acute total sleep deprivation (SD) impairs memory consolidation, attention, working memory and perception. Structural, electrophysiological and molecular experimental approaches provided evidences for the involvement of sleep in synaptic functions. Despite the wide scientific interest on the effects of sleep on the synapse, there is a lack of systematic investigation of sleep-related changes in the synaptic proteome. We isolated parietal cortical and thalamic synaptosomes of rats after 8 h of total SD by gentle handling and 16 h after the end of deprivation to investigate the short- and longer-term effects of SD on the synaptic proteome, respectively. The SD efficiency was verified by electrophysiology. Protein abundance alterations of the synaptosomes were analyzed by fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and by tandem mass spectrometry. As several altered proteins were found to be involved in synaptic strength regulation, our data can support the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis function of sleep and highlight the long-term influence of SD after the recovery sleep period, mostly on cortical synapses. Furthermore, the large-scale and brain area-specific protein network change in the synapses may support both ideas of sleep-related synaptogenesis and molecular maintenance and reorganization in normal rat brain.
- A current view on contactin-4, -5, and -6: Implications in neurodevelopmental disorders. [Review]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2017 Jan 04
- Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatri...
Contactins (Cntns) are a six-member subgroup of the immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule superfamily (IgCAMs) with pronounced brain expression and function. Recent genetic studies of neuropsychiatric disorders have pinpointed contactin-4 (CNTN4), contactin-5 (CNTN5) and contactin-6 (CNTN6) as candidate genes in neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but also in intellectual disability, schizophrenia (SCZ), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and anorexia nervosa (AN). This suggests that they have important functions during neurodevelopment. This suggestion is supported by data showing that neurite outgrowth, cell survival and neural circuit formation can be affected by disruption of these genes. Here, we review the current genetic data about their involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders and explore studies on how null mutations affect mouse behavior. Finally, we highlight to role of protein-protein interactions in the potential mechanism of action of CNTN4, -5 and -6 and emphasize that complexes with other membrane proteins may play a role in neuronal developmental functions.
- PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2017 Jan 04; 79:23-33
- Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the...
Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR.
- Roles of afadin in the formation of the cellular architecture of the mouse hippocampus and dentate gyrus. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Dec 29; 79:34-44
- The hippocampal formation with tightly packed neurons, mainly at the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 regions, constitutes a one-way neural circuit, which is associated with learning and memory. We p...
The hippocampal formation with tightly packed neurons, mainly at the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, and CA1 regions, constitutes a one-way neural circuit, which is associated with learning and memory. We previously showed that the cell adhesion molecules nectins and its binding protein afadin play roles in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses which are formed between the mossy fibers of the dentate gyrus granule cells and the dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells. We showed here that in the afadin-deficient hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus granules cells and the CA3, CA2, and CA1 pyramidal cells were abnormally located; the mossy fiber trajectory was abnormally elongated; the CA3 pyramidal cells were abnormally differentiated; and the densities of the presynaptic boutons on the mossy fibers and the apical dendrites of the CA3 pyramidal cells were decreased. These results indicate that afadin plays roles not only in the formation of the mossy fiber synapses but also in the formation of the cellular architecture of the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus.
- Involvement of the coatomer protein complex I in the intracellular traffic of the delta opioid receptor. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Dec 30; 79:53-63
- The delta opioid receptor (DOPr) is known to be mainly expressed in intracellular compartments. It remains unknown why DOPr is barely exported to the cell surface, but it seems that a substantial pro...
The delta opioid receptor (DOPr) is known to be mainly expressed in intracellular compartments. It remains unknown why DOPr is barely exported to the cell surface, but it seems that a substantial proportion of the immature receptor is trapped within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi network. In the present study, we performed LC-MS/MS analysis to identify putative protein partners involved in the retention of DOPr. Analysis of the proteins co-immunoprecipitating with Flag-DOPr in transfected HEK293 cells revealed the presence of numerous subunits of the coatomer protein complex I (COPI), a vesicle-coating complex involved in recycling resident proteins from the Golgi back to the ER. Further analysis of the amino acid sequence of DOPr identified multiple consensus di-lysine and di-arginine motifs within the intracellular segments of DOPr. Using cell-surface ELISA and GST pulldown assays, we showed that DOPr interacts with COPI through its intracellular loops 2 and 3 (ICL2 and ICL3, respectively) and that the mutation of the K(164)AK(166) (ICL2) or K(250)EK(252) (ICL3) putative COPI binding sites increased the cell-surface expression of DOPr in transfected cells. Altogether, our results indicate that COPI is a binding partner of DOPr and provide a putative mechanism to explain why DOPr is highly retained inside the cells.
- Extracellular vesicles of the blood-brain barrier: Role in the HIV-1 associated amyloid beta pathology. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Dec 29; 79:12-22
- HIV-infected brains are characterized by increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition. It is believed that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for Aβ homeostasis and contributes to Aβ accumulation in...
HIV-infected brains are characterized by increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition. It is believed that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical for Aβ homeostasis and contributes to Aβ accumulation in the brain. Extracellular vesicles (ECV), like exosomes, recently gained a lot of attention as potentially playing a significant role in Aβ pathology. In addition, HIV-1 hijacks the exosomal pathway for budding and release. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of BBB-derived ECV in the HIV-1-induced Aβ pathology in the brain. Our results indicate that HIV-1 increases ECV release from brain endothelial cells as well as elevates their Aβ cargo when compared to controls. Interestingly, brain endothelial cell-derived ECV transferred Aβ to astrocytes and pericytes. Infusion of brain endothelial ECV carrying fluorescent Aβ into the internal carotid artery of mice resulted in Aβ fluorescence associated with brain microvessels and in the brain parenchyma. These results suggest that ECV carrying Aβ can be successfully transferred across the BBB into the brain. Based on these observations, we conclude that HIV-1 facilitates the shedding of brain endothelial ECV carrying Aβ; a process that may increase Aβ exposure of cells of neurovascular unit, and contribute to amyloid deposition in HIV-infected brain.
- Role of the adhesion molecule F3/Contactin in synaptic plasticity and memory. [Review]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Dec 28
- Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuro...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have a pivotal role in building and maintaining synaptic structures during brain development participating in axonal elongation and pathfinding, glial guidance of neuronal migration, as well as myelination. CAMs expression persists in the adult brain particularly in structures undergoing postnatal neurogenesis and involved in synaptic plasticity and memory as the hippocampus. Among the neural CAMs, we have recently focused on F3/Contactin, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, involved in neuronal development, synaptic maintenance and organization of neuronal networks. Here, we discuss our recent data suggesting that F3/Contactin exerts a role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in adult and aged mice. In particular, we have studied long-term potentiation (LTP), spatial and object recognition memory, and phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP-Responsive-Element Binding protein (CREB) in a transgenic mouse model of F3/Contactin overexpression. We also investigated whether F3/Contactin might influence neuronal apoptosis and the production of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), known to be one of the main pathogenetic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In conclusion, a further understanding of F3/Contactin role in synaptic plasticity and memory might have interesting clinical outcomes in cognitive disorders, such as aging and AD, offering innovative therapeutic opportunities.
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- CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2B regulates recombinant NMDA receptor currents in a chloride-dependent manner. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Dec 18; 79:45-52
- Some forms of long-term synaptic plasticity require docking of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) to residues 1290-1309 within the intracellular C-terminal tail of the N-methyl...
Some forms of long-term synaptic plasticity require docking of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) to residues 1290-1309 within the intracellular C-terminal tail of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor GluN2B subunit. The phosphorylation of Ser1303 within this region destabilizes CaMKII binding. Interestingly, Ser1303 is a substrate for CaMKII itself, as well as PKC and DAPK1, but these kinases have been reported to have contradictory effects on the activity of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors. Here, we re-assessed the effect of CaMKII on NMDA receptor desensitization in heterologous cells, as measured by the ratio of steady-state to peak currents induced during 3s agonist applications. CaMKIIα co-expression or infusion of constitutively active CaMKII limits the extent of desensitization and preserves current amplitude with repeated stimulation of recombinant GluN1A/GluN2B when examined using low intracellular chloride (Cl(-)) levels, characteristic of neurons beyond the first postnatal week. In contrast, CaMKIIα enhances the acute rate and extent of desensitization when intracellular Cl(-) concentrations are high. The apparent dependence of CaMKIIα effects on NMDA receptor desensitization on Cl(-) concentrations is consistent with the presence of a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductance endogenous to HEK 293 cells, which was confirmed by photolysis of caged-Ca(2+). However, Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) conductances are unaffected by CaMKIIα expression, indicating that CaMKII affects agonist-induced whole cell currents via modulation of the NMDA receptor. In support of this idea, CaMKIIα modulation of GluN2B-NMDA receptors is abrogated by the phospho-null mutation of Ser1303 in GluN2B to alanine and occluded by phospho-mimetic mutation of Ser1303 to aspartate regardless of intracellular Cl(-) concentration. Thus, CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors reduces desensitization at physiological (low) intracellular Cl(-), perhaps serving as a feed-forward mechanism to sustain NMDA-mediated Ca(2+) entry and continued CaMKII activation during learning and memory.